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List of Definitions,

Therapeutic properties and

Flower Remedies

 

Note:

As all of you know I am done working on my Master Herbalist degree and moving on to my Doctor of Naturopath (ND). As I'm working along it seem to me that I was always looking up words to understand this foreign language, lol, so I decide to bring this to you, now all of us can understand together. 

Click on the hyper-link below to find what you are looking for (to move around this growing document or just scroll).

If you find a word that is not in this document please email the word to me at melody@melodyanns.com I will be happy to add it.

"a" to "z"

Generated on 9/18/2008
Updated on 2/18/2009

 

#End of Document, References

#A, #B, #C, #D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

 

 

  A

 

-   Abortifacient – Causes induced abortion. Induces abortion or miscarriage.

 

-   Abscess – A localized collection of pus and liquefied tissue in a cavity.

 

-   Absolute – A highly concentrated viscous, semisolid, or solid perfume material, usually obtained by alcohol extraction from the concrete.

 

-   Absorbents – Herbs used to produce absorption of exudates or diseased tissues.

 

-   Absorption – 1. The act of absorbing. 2. The state or process of being absorbed. 3. Assimilation; incorporation: the absorption of small farms into one big one.  4. Uptake of substances by a tissue, as of nutrients through the wall of the intestine. Nutritionally, the process by which nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal tract into the bloodstream to be used by the body.  If nutrients are not properly absorbed, nutritional deficiencies can result.

 

-   Abstergents – Detergents.

 

-   Acetylcholine – A neurotransmitter.  Its effects include cardiac inhibition and increase in blood vessel diameter.

 

-   Acetic acid – A week inorganic acid that is the active ingredient in vinegar; a 4 to 5 percent solution of acetic acid in water makes vinegar.

 

-   Achenes – An achene (also sometimes referred to as “akene and occasionally “achenium” or “achenocarp”) is a type of simple dry fruit produce by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are “monocarpellate” (formed from on e carpel) and indeshiscent (they do not open at maturity).  Achenes contain a single seed that nearly fells the pericarp, but does not adhere to it.  In many species, what we think of as the “seed” is actually an achene, a fruit containing the seed.

 

-   Achlorhydria – Absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

 

-   Acid – Any of a class of compounds that share certain basic chemical characteristics.  Acids have low pH, are usually sour to the taste, and, in their pure form, are often corrosive.  They can be either organic or inorganic compounds.  Acids found n plant tissues (especially fruits) tend to prevent the secretion of fluids and shrink tissues. A compound producing hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Acidic refers to a pH below 7.0.

 

-   Acidophilus – Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, also called “friendly colonic flora”.

 

-   Acidosis – A condition characterized by excessive acidity of bodily fluids. Abnormal state of reduced alkalinity of blood and tissues.

 

-   Acrid – Leaving a burning sensation in the mouth.

 

-   ACTHSee Adrenocorticotropic hormone. Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.  It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus).  Its principal effects are increased production of androgens and, as its name suggests, cortisol from the adrenal cortex.  (Return to Saponin)

 

-   Acupressure – Manual application of pressure at points where acupuncture needles would be inserted.

 

-   Acupuncture – Chinese practice that involves insertion of needles into body at specific points along meridians to treat disease and reduce pain.

 

-   Acute – Designating disease with rapid onset, severe symptoms, and brief duration; opposite of chronic.

 

-   Acute abdomen – Emergency condition caused by damaging to one or more abdominal organs that result in intense pain and shock.

 

-   Acute illness – An illness that comes on quickly and may cause relatively severe symptoms, but is of limited duration.

 

-   Adaptogen – A term for a substance, usually an herb that produces suitable adjustments in the body.  Adaptogens tend to normalize body functions, and when the job is completed, they are eliminated or incorporated into the body without side effect.  Some beneficial adaptogens include garlic, ginseng, Echinacea, ginkgo, goldenseal, and pau d ‘arco.  An herb that increase resistance and resilience to stress, enabling the body to avoid reaching collapse because it can adapt around the problem.

 

-   Addison’s disease – Condition marked by weakness, low blood pressure, and dark pigmentation due to inadequate hormone secretion by adrenal glands.

 

-   Adenitis – Regional inflammation of gland or lymph node.

 

-   Adenocarcinoma – Malignant epithelial tumor in glandular pattern.

 

-   Adenoma – An ordinary benign (nonmalignant) tumor of skin tissue.

 

-   ADHSee Antidiuretic Hormone.

 

-   Adhesion – Union by fibrous connective tissue of two normally separate parts.

 

-   Adipose – Fat in connective tissue.

 

-   Adipose tissue – Fatty tissue; fat deposits.

 

-   Adjuvant – Any substances that enhances the immune-stimulating properties of an antigen or the pharmacological effect of a drug.

 

-   Adjuvant Chemotherapy – One or more anticancer drugs used in combination with surgery or radiation therapy as part of the treatment of cancer. Adjuvant usually means “in addition to” initial treatment.

 

-   Administration – This term refers to how a drug is taken.

 

-   Adrenal gland – One of a pair of glands situated a tip the kidneys.  The adrenal glands are the source of the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol, among others.

 

-   Adrenaline – Hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, which produces the “fight-or-flight” response.  Also called epinephrine.

 

-   Adrenergic – Compound that acts like epinephrine or nor-epinephrine.

 

-   Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – Polypeptide secreted by anterior pituitary that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol.

 

-   Adsorption – to gather (dissolved substance) on a surface in a condensed layer: Charcoal will absorb gases.

 

-   Adverse drug reaction (ARD) – Defined by the WHO as “any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy.”

 

-   Aerophagy – Swallowing of air.  

 

-   Aflatoxin – A toxic chemical produced y the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus molds.

 

-   Agar – Polysaccharide derived from seaweed, used as culture medium for microorganisms; gelatinous natural laxative.

 

-   Agglutinin – Substance, especially antibody that causes bacteria, blood cells, and antigens to clump.

 

-   Agonist – A drug that both blinds to receptors and has an intrinsic effect.

 

-   Agranulocytosis – Acute illness caused by chemicals or drug reaction in which certain white blood cells disappear, causing rapid, massive infection.

 

-   Agrimony (Flower Remedies) – This remedy is especially used for those who suffer considerable inner torture which they try to dissemble behind a faade of cheerfulness.

 

-   Ague (a gu) – The chief protein of blood plasma. Malaria; general malaise marked by fever.

 

-   AIDS – Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; severe weakening or destruction of body’s immune system by human immunodeficiency virus.

 

-   AIDS-related complex ARC – Chronic enlargement of lymph nodes and persistent fever caused by AIDS virus. (Return to ARC)

 

-   Ajoene – is a chemical compound available from garlic (Allium Sativum). The name is derived from “ajo” the Spanish word for garlic.  It is found as a mixture of two isomers, E- and Z-4, 5, 9-trthiadodeca-1, 6, 11-triene 9-oxide.

 

Ajoene, an unsaturated disulfide, is formed from the bonding of three allicin molecules. Allicin is a sulfinyl compound that gives garlic its strong odor and flavor. The release of allicin occurs after a garlic clove is crushed or finely chopped. Subsequent formation of ajoene occurs when allicin is dissolved in various solvents including edible oils. Ajoene is also found in garlic extract. Ajoene is most stable and most abundant in macerate of garlic (chopped garlic in edible oil).

 

-   Albumin – The chief protein of blood plasma. Most abundant protein found in blood plasma.

 

-   Albuminuria – The presence of protein albumin in the urine.

 

-   Aldosterone – A hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, which causes the retention of sodium and the secretion of potassium.

 

-   Alga – Unicellular organism distinguished from plants by having no true root stem.

 

-   Alkaline phosphatase – A blood enzyme measurement that indicates the health of the liver.

 

-   Alkaline – Solution having a pH above 7.0.

 

-   Alkaloids – A large, varied group of nitrogen-containing compounds found in plants.  Often alkaline, they react with acids to form soluble salts, many of which are physiologically active.

 

-   Alkalosis – Abnormal state of increased alkalinity of blood and tissues.

 

-   Allantoinis a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3. It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide. It is a diureide of glyoxylic acid. Named after the allantois, an amniote embryonic excretory organ in which it concentrates during development in most mammals except humans and higher apes, it is a product of oxidation of uric acid by purine catabolism. After birth, it is the predominant means by which nitrogenous waste is excreted in the urine of these animals. In humans and higher apes, the metabolic pathway for conversion of uric acid to allantoin is not present, so the former is excreted. Recombinant rasburicase is sometimes used as a drug to catalyze this metabolic conversion in patients. In fish, allantoin is broken down further (into ammonia) before excretion. Allantoin is a major metabolic intermediate in many other organisms including plants and bacteria.

 

-   Allelochemicals – Chemicals involved in interspecific communication.

 

-   Allelopathy – Chemicals interaction between species at all levels of complexity, from microorganisms to higher plants, inextricably interwoven into ecological phenomena.

 

-   Allergen – Any substance that comes into contact with body tissue (by skin absorption, ingestion, or inhalation) and causes a specific reaction within the bloodstream.

 

-   Allergy – Hypersensitivity to a particular substance or antigen, such as pollen, fur, feathers, mold, dust, drugs, dyes, cosmetics, or food, causing characteristic symptoms when encountered, ingested, or inhaled.

 

-   Alliaceous – Garlic- or onion like.

 

-   Allicinis an organic compound obtained from garlic. This colorless liquid has a distinctively pungent smell. This compound exhibits antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. Allicin is garlic's defense mechanism against attacks by pests.

 

-   Alliinis a sulfoxide that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic. It is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine. When fresh garlic is chopped or crushed, the enzyme alliinase converts alliin into allicin which is primarily responsible for the aroma of fresh garlic. Garlic has been used since antiquity as a therapeutic remedy for oxygen toxicity, and when this was investigated, garlic did indeed show strong antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging properties, possibly owing to the alliin contained within. (Return to Alliinaes)

When the effect of alliin is observed on blood cells in vitro, a noted increase in the engulfing capacity of phagocyting cells is seen.

-   Alliinaesare a class of enzymes found in plants of the genus Allicin, such as garlic and onions. Alliinase is responsible for catalyzing chemical reactions that produce the volatile chemicals that give these foods their flavors, odors, and tear-inducing properties. Alliinases are part of the plant's defense against herbivores. Alliinase is normally sequestered within a plant cell, but when the plant is damaged by a feeding animal, the alliinase is released to catalyze the production of the pungent chemicals. This tends to have a deterrent effect on the animal. The same reaction occurs when onion or garlic is cut with a knife in the kitchen.

 

In garlic, an alliinase enzyme acts on the chemical alliin converting it into allicin.

 

-   Allogenic transplant – Transfer of bone marrow from one person to another.

 

-   Allay – Herbs that lessen or relieve; mitigate; alleviate: to allay pain.

 

-   Allergen – A substances that provokes an allergic response.

 

-   Allergy – An inappropriate response by the immune system to a normally harmless substance.  Allergies can affect any of the body’s tissues.  Hay fever is a common type of allergy.

 

-   Allyl sulfides – Phytochemicals found in leeks, onions, garlic, and chives that act to detoxify the body.

 

-   Alopecia – Baldness. Absence of hair from an area where it normally grows, especially progressive hair loss in men.

 

-   Alopecia Areata – Baldness occurring in patches.

 

-   Alterative – Herbs that gradually restore proper functioning of the body, increasing health and vitality.  Some alternatives support natural waste elimination via the kidneys, liver, lungs, or skin.  Others stimulate digestive function or are antimicrobial. Tending to restore normal health; cleanses and purifies the blood; alters existing nutritive and excretory processes gradually restoring normal body function.

 

-   Alternative therapy – The treatment of disease by means other than conventional medical, pharmacological, and surgical techniques.

 

-   Alteratives – Herbs used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes.

 

-   Alzheimer’s disease – Progressive dementia and brain degeneration.

 

-   Amebiasis – Infection with or disease caused by an amoeba.

 

-   Amebic dysentery – Severe dysentery caused by protozoan amoeba.

 

-   Amenorrhea – Absence or cessation of menstruation due to a congenital defect, hormonal deficiency, hypothalamus disorder, or emotional problem.

 

-   Ameobacidal – An antibiotic.

 

-   Amenorrhea – Scanty or absent menstruation. Absence or suppression of menstruation.

 

-   Amino acid – Any of twenty—two nitrogen—containing organic acids from which proteins are made. Any of 25 organic acids containing an amino group that link into polypeptide chains to form proteins.

 

-   Amoebicidal – A substance with the power to destroy amoebas.

 

-   Amphoteric – Having the ability to act as either an acid or a base. 

 

-   Amylase – Enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides.

 

-   Amyrin – Effects of beta-amyrin palmitate isolated from the leaves of Lobelia inflata were studied on the central nervous system of mice and were compared with those of antidepressant drugs, mianserin and imipramine. In the forced swimming test, beta-amyrin palmitate, like mianserin and imipramine, reduced the duration of immobility of mice significantly in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1). Beta-Amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) or mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) elicited a dose-related reduction in locomotor activity of mice and antagonized locomotor stimulation induced by methamphetamine. In contrast, imipramine (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) increased locomotor activity and potentiated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Beta-Amyrin palmitate showed no effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia, whilst mianserin (10 mg kg-1) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg kg-1) antagonized the reserpine-induced effect. Unlike imipramine, beta-amyrin palmitate and mianserin did not affect haloperidol-induced catalepsy, tetrabenazine-induced ptosis and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Beta-Amyrin palmitate and imipramine had no effects on the head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, whereas mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) decreased it in a dose-dependent manner. A potentiating effect of beta-amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) on narcosis induced by sodium pentobarbitone was stronger than that of imipramine (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) but weaker than that of mianserin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). These results suggest that beta-amyrin palmitate has similar properties in some respects to mianserin and might possess a sedative action.

 

-   Anabolic compound – A substance that allows the conversion of simple nutritive materials into complex materials that are part of living tissue during the constructive phase of metabolism.

 

-   Anabolism – Constructive metabolism in which food is changed into living tissue.

 

-   Analgesic – Tending to relieve pain, or a substance that relieves pain. A substance that relieves pain. A substance that reduces the sensation of pain.

 

-   Analog (analogue) – A chemical compound with a structure similar to that of another but differing from it in respect to a certain component; it may have a similar or opposite action metabolically.

 

-   Analogousis both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy.

 

Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion, explanation and communication. It lays behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people, for example, in face and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition" (Hofstadter in Gentner et al. 2001).


Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, comparisons, metaphors, similes, allegories, and parables, but not metonymy. Phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word like also rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary and common sense, where proverbs and idioms give many examples of its application, but also in science, philosophy and the humanities. The concepts of association, comparison, correspondence, mathematical and morphological, homomorphism, iconicity, isomorphism, metaphor, resemblance, and similarity are closely related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy.

 

Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers. The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notable in cognitive science.

 

-   Anemia – A deficiency in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen to the body tissues.

 

-   Anesthetics – Herbs to produce anesthesia or unconsciousness. Causing loss of sensation, or a substance that causes the loss of sensation, especially the ability to feel pain.

 

-   Analeptics – Restorative herbs or food.

 

-   Analgesic – Relieves pain when taken orally.

 

-   Analgesics – Herbs used to allay pain.

 

-   Anaphrodisiac – Reduces sexual desire.

 

-   Anaphrodisiacs – Herbs used to allay sexually feeling.

 

-   Anaphylaxis – Acute, allergic reaction to a substance to which a person has been previously sensitized, resulting in faintness, palpitations, loss of color, difficulty in breathing, and shock.

 

-   Androgen – Any substance that produces masculinization, such as testosterone.

 

-   Anemia – Reduced hemoglobin in blood, causing fatigue, breathlessness, and pallor.

 

-   AnerobicNot dependent on oxygen, and may die or become inactive in its presence. Clostridium group of bacteria (that causes the deadly food poisoning in improperly sterilized cans) is anaerobic. Bacteria in heavily polluted water (with no dissolved oxygen) which degrade sewage from septic systems, live and function only in the absence of oxygen, and so does the bacteria that ferment organic material into beer, rum, whisky, wines, and other alcoholic beverages. Anaerobic organisms are the oldest life-form on earth which appeared about 4.5 billion years ago. Also spelled as anerobic.

 

-   Anesthetic – Agent that diminishes or abolishes sensation and can produce unconsciousness.

 

-   Aneurysm – Balloon like swelling of an arterial wall.

 

-   Angina – Feeling of suffocating pain; chest pain.

 

-   Angina pectoris – A syndrome of chest pain with sensations of suffocation, typically brought on by exertion and relieved by rest. A suffocating pain (angina) of the chest (pectoris).  Angina is a result of the oxygen demands of the heart not being met.

 

-   Angiosperm – Flowering plant.

 

-   Angiotensin – Causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up.  It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure.  Angiotensin also stimulates the release of Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.  Aldosterone promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, which also drives blood pressure up. (Return to Renin).

 

-   Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) – ACE converts Angiotensin I to a biologically active form, Angiotensin II.  ACE inhibitors are used to combat hypertension.

 

-   Angiotensinogen – Is an a-2-globulin that is produced constitutively and released into the circulation mainly by the liver.  It is a member of the serpin family, although it is not known to inhibit other enzymes, unlike most serpins.  Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels. (Return to Renin).

 

-   Anhydrotic – Stops sweating.

 

-   Annual – Plant with life cycle of one year or season.  

 

-   Anodyne – Relieves pain when applied externally. Substance that soothes or relieves pain.

 

-   Anodynes – Herbs used to allay pain.

 

-   Anodynia – Absence of pain.

 

-   Anorexia – Loss of appetite.

 

-   Anorexia nervosa – Extreme loss of appetite, especially in adolescent females, causing severe weight loss and starvation.

 

-   Anorexiant – A drug or substance that leads to anorexia or diminished appetite; appetite suppressant.

 

-   Anoxia – Condition in which body tissues receive inadequate oxygen.

 

-   Antacid – A substance that neutralizes acid.

 

-   Antacids – Herbs used to neutralize acid in the stomach and intestines. A substance that neutralizes acid in the stomach, esophagus, or the first part of the duodenum.  A substance that neutralizes stomach acid.

 

-   Antagonism – The joint effect of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is less than the sum of the effects produced by each agent separately.  The agonist is the agent producing the effect that is diminished by the administration of the antagonist.

 

-   Antagonist – A drug or substance that leads to anorexia or diminished apptit; appetite suppressant.

 

-   Anthelmintic – Helps destroy and dispel parasites (includes vermicides and Vermifuges). A vermifuge, destroying or expelling intestinal worms.

 

-   Anthelmintics – Herbs used to destroy intestinal worms.

 

-   Anther – Part of the stamen that produces and release pollen.

 

-   Anthocyanidin – A particular class of flavonoids that gives plants, fruits, and flowers colors ringing from red to blue.

 

-   Anthraquinone – Glycoside compound that produces dyes and purgatives.

 

-   Antianemic – An agent that combats anemia.

 

-   Antiarthritic – An agent that combats arthritis.

 

-   Antiarthritics – Herbs used for the relief of gout.

 

-   Anti-asthmatic – A substance that relieves the symptoms of asthma, (antispasmodic).

 

-   Antibacterial – Destroying or stopping the growth of bacteria. A substance that stops or checks the growth of bacteria.

 

-   Antibilious – Reduces biliary or jaundice condition.

 

-   Antibiotic – A substance that inhibits the growth of or destroys microbes (i.e. bacteria, viruses, yeasts, amoebas). Inhibits growth of or destroys microorganisms.

 

-   Antibody – A protein molecule made by the immune system that is designed to intercept and neutralize a specific invading organism or other foreign substance. Protein manufactured by lymphocytes that reacts with a specific antigen to fight invasion as the principal component of immunity.

 

-   AnticatarrhalEfficacious against catarrh. Anticatarrhals help the body remove excess mucus, whether in the sinus area or in other parts of the body.

 

-   Anticoagulant – Agent that prevents blood from clotting.

 

-   Anticonvulsant – Helps arrest or prevent convulsions.

 

-   Antidepressant – Helps alleviate depression.

 

-   Antidiarrheal – A substance that combats and arrests diarrhea (See tannins). Efficacious against diarrhea. (Return to Astringents)

 

-   Antidiuretic hormoneADH; peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary, causing retention of more water in body.

 

-   Antidote – A substance that counteracts the effects of a poison.

 

-   Antiemetic – Lessens nausea and prevents or relieves vomiting.

 

-   Antiestrogenic – A substance capable of preventing full expression of the biological effects of an estrogen. An agent that reduces the incidence and severity of nausea or vomiting. (Return to phytoestrogens)

 

-   Antifungal – Destroying or preventing the growth of fungi. A substance that inhibits the growth or multiplication of fungi.

 

-   Antigalactagogue – Prevents or decreases secretion of milk.

 

-   Antigen – A substance that can elicit the formation of an antibody when introduced into the body. Any substance or microorganism that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it.

 

-   Antihemorrhagic – An agent that prevents or combats hemorrhage or bleeding.

 

-   Antihepatotoxic – Protects liver cells from chemical damage.

 

-   Antihistamine – A substance that interferes with the action of histamines by binding to histamine receptors in various body tissues (see Histamine). A chemical that blocks action of histamine.

 

-   Antihydropics – Herbs used for the relief of dropsy.

 

-   Antihypertensive – Blood pressure-lowering effect.

 

-   Anti-inflammatory – Counteracting or diminishing inflammation or its effects.

 

-   Antilithic – Prevents the formation of a calculus or stone.

 

-   Antilithics – Herbs used for the relief of calculus affections.

 

-   Antimicrobial – Antimicrobials help the body destroy or resist pathogenic microorganisms. They help the body strengthen its own resistance to infective organisms and throw off the illness.

 

-   Antioxidant – A substance that blocks or inhibits destructive oxidation reactions. Examples include vitamins C and E, the minerals selenium and germanium, the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q10, and some amino acids. Inhibits oxidation. A compound that prevents free radical or oxidative damage.

 

-   Antiparasitical – Destructive to parasites.

 

-   Antiperiodic – Relieves malarial-type fevers and chills; prevents regular recurrences.

 

-   Antiperiodics – Herbs used for the relief of malarial fevers.

 

-   Antiphlogistic – A substance used to reduce inflammation. Relieves inflammation. Checks or counteracts inflammation.

 

-   Antipruritic – Relieves sensation of itching or prevents its occurrence.

 

-   Antiputrescent – An agent that prevents and combats decay or putrefaction.

 

-   Antipyretic – A substance that counteracts fever. Dispels heat, fire and fever. Reduces fever; (See also febrifuge)

 

-   Antipyretics – Herbs used for the reduction of bodily temperature in fevers.

 

-   Antiretroviral – A substance that stops or suppresses the activity of a retrovirus such as HIV.

 

-   Antirheumatic – Helps prevent and relieve rheumatism.

 

-   Antisclerotic – Helps prevent the hardening of tissue.

 

-   Antiscorbutic – Effective against or a remedy for scurvy.

 

-   Antiseborrheic – Helps control the production of sebum, the oily secretion from sweat glands.

 

-   Antiseptic – Destroys and prevents the development of microbes.

 

-   Antiseptics – Substances which have the power of preventing putrefactions.

 

-   Antispasmodic – A substance that prevents or relaxes muscle spasms. Relieves spasms of voluntary and involuntary muscles. Substances that relieves smooth muscle spasms.

 

-   Antispasmodics’ – Herbs used for the relief of nervous irritability and minor spasms. (Return to Spasmolytic)

 

-   Antisyphilitics – Herbs used for the relief of syphilis.

 

-   Antitoxic – An antidote or treatment that counteracts the effects of poison.

 

-   Antitumor – A substance that prevents or is effective against tumors.

 

-   Antitussive – Prevents or relieves coughing. Substance that reduces coughing, especially one that affects activity in the brain’s cough center and depresses respiration.

 

-   Antivenin – A serum that contains antitoxin specific for an animal or insect venom.

 

-   Antiviral – Inhibits a virus. Substances that inhibits the growth of a virus.

 

-   Antizymotics – Substances which have the power of destroying disease—producing organisms.

 

-   Anxiety – An unpleasant emotional state ranging from mild unease to intense fear.

 

-   Aperient – A mild laxative.

 

-   Aperients – Mild purgatives. Gently stimulating evacuation of the bowels; laxative.

 

-   Aperitif – Stimulant of the appetite.

 

-   Aperitive – A substance that stimulates the appetite; gently causing the bowels to move: Laxative.

 

-   Aphasia – Inability to express oneself properly through speech or loss of verbal comprehension; sensory and motor areas may be involved.

 

-   Aphonia – Loss of voice.

 

-   Aphrodisiac – Increases or stimulates sexual desire.

 

-   Aphrodisiacs – Substances used to increase sexual power or excitement; sexual appetite or activity.

 

-   Aphtha (pl. Aphthae) – Small, white lesions that form in the mouth and throat due to the presence of the herpes simplex virus.  The virus, once contacted, tends to remain in the body of the host.  When resistance is lowered for any reason, the virus may become active, forming Aphthae.  Also called cold sores.

 

-   Aphthous sore mouth – The presence of small, white lesions (cold sores) in the mouth.

 

-   Apnea – Temporary cessation of breathing

 

-   Apoplexy – Sudden loss of consciousness, a stroke, or sudden severe hemorrhage.

 

-   Appendicitis – Acute inflammation of vermiform appendix.

 

-   Application – Medication, remedy, or antiseptic placed externally on body part, as in a compress.

 

-   Aqua Regia – An extremely powerful acid formed by mixing nitric and hydrochloric acids.

 

-   Arbovirus – RNA-containing virus that can cause disease when transmitted from animals to humans by insects.

 

-   ARCAIDS-related complex.

 

-   Arf – Stands for ADP ribosylation factor. Are members of the Arf family of the GTP-binding protein of the RAS super family.  Aft family proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, and six highly conserved members of the family have been identified in mammalian cells.  Although Afr’s are soluble, they generally associate with membranes because of N-terminus myristoylation.  They function as regulators of vesicular traffic and actin remodeling.

 

-   Aril – The husk or membrane covering the seed of a plant.

 

-   Aromatherapy – The therapeutic use of essential oils.

 

-   Aromatic – Herbs which contain volatile, essential oils which aid digestion and relieve gas. A substance with a strong aroma or smell.

 

-   Aromatics – Herbs characterized by a fragrant or spicy taste and odor, and stimulant to the gastrointestinal mucous membrane.

 

-   Aromatics Bitters – Herbs which unite the properties of the aromatics and the simple bitters.

 

-   Arrhythmia – Irregularity or deviation from normal rhythm or force of heartbeat. See Cardiac arrhythmia.

 

-   Arteriole – Microscopic blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries with the capillary beds.  Arterioles together with the smaller arteries make up the resistance vessels.

 

-   Arteriosclerosis – A circulatory disorder characterized by a thickening and stiffening of the walls of large and medium—sized arteries, which impedes circulation. Deposit of cholesterol on artery walls; hardening of the arteries.

 

-   Artery – A blood vessel through which blood is pumped from the heart to all the organs, glands, and other tissues of the body. A blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.

 

-   Arthralgia – Severe joint pain.

 

-   Arthritis – Inflammation of joints.

 

-   Asbestosis – A lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, sometimes leading to lung cancer.

 

-   Ascaris – A genus of intestinal worms. Roundworm (also called maw-worm and eelworm) found in the small intestine causing colicky pains and diarrhea, especially in children.

 

-   Ascites – Excessive accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

 

-   Ascorbate – A mineral salt of vitamin C. Taken as nutritional supplements, ascorbates are less acidic (and therefore less irritating) than pure ascorbic acid and also provide for better absorption of both the vitamin C and the mineral.

 

-   Ascorbic acid – The organic acid more commonly known as vitamin C.

 

-   Asepsis – Complete absence of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, fungi, and microorganisms.

 

-   Aspen (Flower Remedies) – Useful for feelings of anxiety and apprehension.

 

-   Aspergillosis – A disease caused by a fungus.  It can cause lesions of the skin, ear, orbit, nasal sinuses, lungs, and sometimes the bones, meninges, heart, kidneys, or spleen.  Symptoms include fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and coughing up blood.  If the infection reaches the brain, it may cause dementia. (Return to Meninges)

 

-   Assay – A test.

 

-   Asthenia – Lack or loss of strength, usually involving muscular system. (See Debility)

 

-   Asthma – Paroxysmal attacks of bronchial spasms that cause difficulty in breathing, often hereditary; bronchial asthma. (See Bronchial Asthma)

 

-   Astigmatism – Distortion of visual images due to failure of the retina to focus light.

 

-   Astringent – Firms tissues and organs; reduces discharges and secretions.

 

-   Astringents – Herbs having the power of influencing vital contractility, thereby condensing tissues. Those remedies that control and tend to check or arrest discharges.  A substance that has a constricting or binding effect (See Tannins, Antidiarrheal).

 

-   Asymptomatic – Showing no evidence of a disease.

 

-   Asystole – Absence of contraction (Systole). Asystole is when the heart has stopped beating.

 

-   Ataxia – Shaky movements and unsteady gait when brain fails to regulate posture or direction of limb movements.

 

-   Atherogenic – Having the capacity to start or accelerate the process of atherogenesis or the formation of lipid deposits in the arteries.

 

-   Atheroma – Degeneration of artery walls due to fatty plaques and scar tissue; common form of arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis. 

 

-   Atherosclerosis –The most common type of arteriosclerosis, caused by the accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner lining of the arteries. A process in which fatty substances (cholesterol and triglycerides) are deposited in the walls of medium to large arteries, eventually leading to blockage of the artery.

 

-   Atonic – Lacking in tone; debilitated.

 

-   Atony – Lessening or lack of muscular tone or tension.

 

-   Atopy – A predisposition to various allergic conditions including eczema and asthma.

 

-   Atrial fibrillation – Rapid irregular twitchings of the wall of an atrium (chamber) of the heart.

 

-   Atrium – One of the upper chambers of the heart.  Blood returning to the heart is stored in the atria before being ejected into the ventricles.

 

-   Atrophy – Wasting away of normally developed organ or tissue due to degeneration of cells.

 

-   Attrition – Normal wearing away of surface of teeth.

 

-   Aura – A subjective sensation that precedes an attack of migraine or epilepsy.  With epilepsy, it may precede the actual attack by hours or seconds, and may be of a psychic nature or sensory with olfactory, visual, auditory, or taste hallucinations.  In a migraine attack, the aura immediately precedes the attack and primarily consists of visual sensory phenomena.

 

-   Autoimmune – Designating a disorder of the body’ defense mechanism in which antibodies are produced against the body’s own tissue, treating it as a foreign substance.

 

-   Autoimmune disorder – Any condition in which the immune system reacts inappropriately to the body’s own tissues and attacks them, causing damage and/or interfering with normal functioning.  Examples include Bright’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

 

-   Autologous – Derived from the same individual or organism.

 

-   Autologous transfusion – A transfusion of one’s own blood that has been collected and kept for later use.

 

-   Automatism – Automatic behavior or actions without conscious knowledge or control.  Certain types of epileptic seizure may include automatisms.  These may be complicated actions completed totally without the subject’s control, and afterwards there will be no memory of having done them.

 

-   Axil – Upper angel between a stem and leaf or bract.

 

-   Axillary – In the armpit area.

 

-   Axon – The long, filamentous part of a neuron (nerve cell) that carries nerve impulses away from the sell.

 

-   Ayurveda – A highly developed system of therapeutics developed in the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indian subcontinent.

 

-   Ayurvedic medicine – A holistic approach to health care that is based on principles of Ayurveda and designed to maintain or improve health through the use of dietary modification, massage, yoga, herbal preparations, and other measures. (Return to Dosha)

 

 

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  B

 

-   B lymphocyte (B cell) – One of the immune system cell types; B cells fight infection primarily by making antibodies.

 

-   Bacteremia – Presence of bacteria in blood, indicating infection.

 

-   Bacteria – Single—celled microorganisms.  Some bacteria can cause disease; other (“friendly”) bacteria are normally present in the body and perform such useful functions as aiding digestion and protecting the body from harmful invading organisms.

 

-   Bactericidal – An agent that destroys bacteria (a type of microbe or organism).

 

-   Bactericide – Destroys bacteria.

 

-   Bacteriostat – Substance that retards growth or bacteria.

 

-   Balm – Fragrant ointment or aromatic oil with medicinal value.

 

-   Balsam – A resinous semisolid mass or viscous liquid exuded from a plant.  A “true” balsam is characterized by its high content of benzoic acid, benzoates, cinnamic acid, or cinnamates.

 

-   Baroreceptor – Neural receptor sensitive to pressure and rate of change in pressure; stretch receptor; found in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses.

 

-   Basal metabolic rate – The rate of metabolism when the body is at rest.

 

-   Basal cell carcinoma – Common, usually curable, slow-growing malignant tumor on the skin.

 

-   Basal rosette – Leaves radiating directly from the crown of the root.

 

-   Baseline – The first or starting measurement in a study. New measurements of blood values are compared to this starting value.

 

-   Basophil – A type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions.

 

-   Bed wetting See enuresis. Is involuntary urination while asleep after age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated.  The medical term for this condition is “nocturnal enuresis.” Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is when a child has not yet stayed dry on a regular basis.  Secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE) is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry.

 

-   Becquerel Rays – The rays emitted from uranium.

 

-   Beech (Flower Remedies) – Good for those who are critical and intolerant of others.  Also who let themselves be exploited or imposed upon by others.

 

-   Bell’s palsy – Paralysis of muscles on one side of the face and the inability to close eye, sometimes with loss of taste and excess sensitivity to noise.

 

-   Benign – Literally, “harmless.” Used to refer to cells, especially cells growing in inappropriate locations that are not malignant (cancerous). Consisting of a localized mass of nonmalignant specialized cells within connective tissue that do not invade and destroy tissue or spread throughout body.

 

-   Berry – Small, fleshy fruit or dry seed or kernel of various plants.

 

-   Beta-blocker – Drug that decreases heart activity by affecting receptors of the sympathetic nervous system.

 

-   Beta-carotene – A substance the body uses to make vitamin A.

 

-   Beta cells – The cells in the pancreas, which manufacture insulin.

 

-   Bentonite – Volcanic clay used in nutrition for its absorptive properties.

 

-   Biennial – Plants with two-year life cycle in which the vegetative first-year growth is followed by fruiting and dying during second year.

 

-   Bilary – Pertaining to bile or the bile duct.

 

-   Bile – A bitter, yellowish substance that is released by the liver into the intestines for the digestion of fats. Greenish liver secretion that is stored in the gallbladder until released to emulsify fats in the small intestine.

 

-   Bile salts – Steroid molecules in bile that promote solubilization and digestion of fats.

 

-   Biliary – Pertaining to the bile, to the bile ducts, or to the gallbladder. (Return to Antibilious , Return to Lithotriptic)

 

-   Bilirubin – The breakdown product of the hemoglobin molecule of red blood cells.

 

-   Bilirubinemia – Excess bile pigment in blood that causes jaundice.

 

-   Binomial – Standard scientific name for an organism in Latin.

 

-   Bioavailability – The amount of drug that is available to the target tissue after administration; this may not be 100% due to degradation or alteration before reaching the target tissue.

 

-   Biofeedback – A technique for helping an individual to become conscious of usually unconscious body processes, such as heartbeat or body temperature, so that he or she can gain some measure of control over them, and thereby learn to manage the effects of various disorders, including acute back pain, migraines, and Raynaud’s disease.

 

-   Bioflavonoid – Any of a group of biologically active flavonoids.  They are essential for the stability and absorption of vitamin C.  Although they are not technically vitamins, they are sometimes referred to as vitamin P.

 

-   Biopsy – Excision of tissue from a living being for diagnosis. A diagnostic test in which tissue or cells are removed from the body for examination under a microscope.

 

-   Biopharmaceutics – The science and study of the ways in which the pharmaceutical formulation of administered agents can influence their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic behavior.

 

-   Biotin – A component of the B—Vitamin complex formerly designated vitamin H. This is a water—soluble substance important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.  Present in many foods, it is particularly found in liver, kidney, milk, egg yolks, and yeast.

 

-   Biotransformation – Chemical alteration of an agent that occurs by virtue of the sojourn of the agent in a biological system.  Pharmacodynamics involves the chemical effects of a drug on the body; biotransformation involves the chemical effect of the body on a drug. “Biotransformation” and “detoxication” are not synonyms: The production of a biotransformation may be more, not less, biologically active, or potent than the starting material.

 

-   Biotranslocation – The movement of chemicals through biological organisms.

 

-   Bitter, Simple – Herbs which have a bitter taste, and have the power of stimulating the gastrointestinal mucous membrane without affecting the general system.

 

-   Bitter Tonic – Bitter herbs which in small amounts stimulate digestion and otherwise help regulate fire in the body.

 

-   Bitters – Herbs with a bitter taste.

 

-   Black lung – Also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), is caused by long exposure to coal dust.  It is a common affliction of coal miners and others who work with coal, similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust, and to the long-term effects of tobacco smoking.  Inhaled coal dust progressively builds up in the lungs and is unable to be removed by the body; that leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and in the worst case, necrosis.

 

-   Blade – Broad, expanded part of a leaf.

 

-   Bleeding time – The time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture as a result of platelet disintegration and blood vessel constriction.  Ranges from 1 to 4 minutes.

 

-   Blennorrhagia – Heavy discharge of mucus, especially from the urethra.

 

-   Blepharitis – Inflammation, scaling, and crusting of eyelids.

 

-   Blister – External swelling that contains watery fluid and blood or pus, caused by friction.

 

-   Blocking antibody – Antibody whose production is induced by cancer cells or tissue transplants and that blocks the killing of those cells by cytotoxic T cells.

 

-   Blood count – A basic diagnostic test in which a sample of blood is examined and the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets determined; or the results of such a test. Measurement of the number of red cells, white cells, and platelets in a sample of blood.

 

-   Blood pressure – The force exerted by blood as it is pumped by the heart and presses against and attempts to stretch blood vessels.

 

-   Blood poisoning – Prolonged invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic bacteria due to infectious disease or skin lesions; Bacteremia; septicemia; toxemia.

 

-   Blood sugar – The glucose (a form of sugar) present in the blood.

 

-   Blood—brain barrier – A Mechanism involving the capillaries and certain other cells of the brain that keeps many substances, especially water—based substances, from passing out of the blood vessels to be absorbed by the brain tissue.

 

-   Boil – Tender, inflamed, postulant area of skin, usually due to staphylococcus infection; furuncle.

 

-   Bolus – A suppository injected into the rectum or vagina. Single, large mass of a substance.

 

-   Bone marrow – The inner core of bone that produces blood cells.

 

-   Botany – Branch of biology dealing with life, structure, growth, and classification of plants.

 

-   Bowel tolerance – The amount of any substance the body can tolerate before it results in diarrhea.

 

-   Bract – Leaflike structure growing below or encircling a flower cluster or flower.

 

-   Bradycardia – Slowing of the heart rate to under 50 beats per minute.

 

-   Bradykinin – Peptide vasodilator that increases capillary permeability and probably stimulates pain receptors.

 

-   Bromeliad – Member of the Pineapple family of plants, usually epiphytic, with stiff, leathery leaves and spikes of bright flowers.

 

-   Bronchi – The two main branches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead to the lungs. (Return to Bronchitis)

 

-   Bronchial asthmaSee Asthma.

 

-   Bronchitis – Inflammation of the walls of the bronchi in the lungs due to virus or bacteria, causing coughing and production of sputum.

 

-   Bronchodilator – Substances that relaxes bronchial muscle to open air passages to the lungs.

 

-   Bronchospasm – Muscular contraction that narrows the bronchi and causes difficulty especially in exhalation.

 

-   Bruit – Any abnormal sound or murmur heard with a stethoscope.

 

-   Bryophyte – Any member of the division of nonvascular plants, including mosses and liverworts. (Return to Moss)

 

-   Bubo – Swollen and inflamed lymph node in armpit or groin.

 

-   Bucca – The cheek. (Return to Buccal)

 

-   Buccal – Pertaining to bucca (Cheek).

 

-   Bulb – Dormant underground bud stage of some plants.

 

-   Bulimia – Psychogenic syndrome of overeating followed by vomiting.

 

-   Bunion – Swelling of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal.

 

-   Bursa – A sac or pouch that contains a special fluid that lubricates joints. (Return to bursitis)

 

-   Bursitis – Inflammation of a bursa.

 

-   Busters – Remedies which, when locally applied, cause inflammatory exudation of serum from the skin, and are used as revulsants.

 

 

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  C

 

-   Cachexia – Weakness and emaciation caused by a serious disease. Weight loss, weakness, and debility associated with chronic disease.

 

-   Cac-, Caco- – A prefix indicating a diseased or deformed condition.

 

-   Calcinosis – Abnormal calcium salts in tissue.

 

-   Calcitonin – Peptide hormone secreted by the thyroid that reduces excess of calcium in the blood by depositing it in bone.

 

-   Calculi – A Stones, Generally refers to either kidney stones or gallstones.

 

-   Calculous – Tending to cleanse or purge, especially causing evacuation of the bowels.  A purgative agent or medicine; a cathartic.

 

-   Calculus – Pebblelike mass, such as gallstone or kidney stone, formed within the body; hard tartar layer formed on teeth by plaque.

 

-   Calefacients – Herbs used to lower the heart’s action.

 

-   Callus – Hard thickening of an area of skin undergoing rubbing, on hands or feet; mass of tissue forming around fractured bone ends.

 

-   Calmative – Soothing, sedative action.

 

-   Calorie – A unit of heat.  A nutritional calorie is the amount of het necessary to raise 1 kg of water one degree C.

 

-   Calyx – The sepals or outer layer of floral leaves.

 

-   Cambium – Layer of formative cells beneath the bark of a tree.

 

-   Camphene – A terpene found in many essential oils including cypress oil and camphor oil.

 

-   Cancer – General term for more than 100 disease characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells.

 

-   Cancrum – Ulceration of the lip or mouth; canker.

 

-   Candida – Any of the yeast like fungi constituting the genus Candida, members of which may cause athlete’s foot, Vaginitis, thrush, or other infections. (Return to Candida Albicans).

 

-   Candida albicans – A type of fungus normally present at some level in the body.  If it is present in overabundance, it causes yeast infection Known as Candida.

 

-   Candidiasis – Yeastlike fungus infection in the mouth and moist areas of the body; see also thrush.

 

-   CankerSee Cancrum.

 

-   Canthusis either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet. (Return to Pterygium).

 

-   Capillaries – Tiny blood vessels (their walls are about one cell thick) that allow the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the bloodstream and the body’s cells.

 

-   Capsule – A dry fruit, opening when ripe, composed of more than one carpel.

 

-   Carbohydrate – Any one of many organic substances, almost all of them of plant origin, that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and serves as the major source of energy in the diet. Sugar and starches.

 

-   Carbuncle – Staphylococcus infection of the skin that causes boils with multiple drainage channels.

 

-   Carcinogen – An agent that is capable of inducing cancerous changes in cells and/or tissues.

 

-   Carcinogenesis – The development of cancer caused by the actions of certain chemicals, viruses, and unknown factors of primarily normal cells.

 

-   Carcinoma – Cancer in epithelium lining skin or internal organs.

 

-   Cardiac – Pertaining to the heart. Heart tonic or restorative.

 

-   Cardiac arrests – Abrupt cessation of heartbeat, causing loss of pulse, consciousness, and breathing.

 

-   Cardiac arrhythmia – An abnormal heart rate or rhythm. (Return to Arrhythmia).

 

-   Cardiac depressants – Herbs used to lower the heart’s action.

 

-   Cardiac output – Volume of blood pumped by either ventricle per minute.

 

-   Cardiac remedy – An herbal remedy that has a beneficial action on the heart. Some of the remedies in this group are powerful cardioactive agents such as foxglove; others are gentler, safer herbs such as hawthorn and motherwort.

 

-   Cardiac stenosis – Abnormal narrowing of a heart valve.

 

-   Cardiac stimulants – Herbs used to increase the heart’s action.

 

-   CardiomyopathyChronic viral, congenital, or other disorder that affects Heart muscle and causes Heart failure, arrhythmias, or Embolism. (Return to Dilated cardiomyopathy; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)

 

Many cardiac disorders (including coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, viral infections, diabetes, kidney failure, and a variety of inflammatory diseases) can cause a weakness of the cardiac muscle, mostly affecting the ventricles. Weakening of the heart muscle is called cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathy takes two basic forms: dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs when the ventricle (generally the left ventricle) becomes dilated, and the ventricular muscle weak and relatively flaccid. As a result, the pumping action of the ventricle becomes weak; the amount of blood pumped with each heart beat drops; and the body’s organs do not receive their full quotient of blood.  Probably the best measure of the severity of a person’s dilated cardiomyopathy is the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), a measure of the percentage of the left ventricle’s volume that is ejected with each heart beat. Normally, the LVEF is greater than 50%. Patients generally experience a reduction in exercise capacity as the LVEF approaches 40%, and often experience symptoms at rest (weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath) when the LVEF is in the 20 - 30% range.

As dilated cardiomyopathy progresses, symptoms of shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, and leg swelling worsen. The propensity to develop life-threatening arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) also increases as the LVEF drops. The mainstay of therapy is drug treatment: digitalis, diuretics, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers are commonly used. For many patients, a new breed of pacemakers that synchronize and optimize ventricular contraction can improve both symptoms and survival various types of cardiac assist devices (essentially, implantable pumps) are also progressing rapidly.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is usually a genetic condition that tends to run in families. It is characterized by a thickening of the ventricular muscle that results in muscle “stiffness.” This stiffness can lead to episodes of extreme shortness of breath in some patients, especially during exercise. The thickening of the heart muscle can also cause an obstruction in the left ventricle similar to that seen with aortic stenosis. And some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can develop ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, and some thus require insertion of an implantable defibrillator.

-   Cardiopulmonary – Pertaining to the heart and lungs.

 

-   Cardiotonic – A compound that tones and strengthens the heart.

 

-   Carditis – Inflammation of the heart.

 

-   Caries – Decay of bone tissue, especially tooth; cavity.

 

-   Carminative – Relieves intestinal gas, pain and distention; promotes peristalsis.

 

-   Carminatives – Herbs containing volatile oil, used to excite intestinal peristalsis and provoke an expulsion of flatus.  A substance that relieves gas and gripping (severe pain in the bowel). Plants rich in aromatic volatile oils that stimulate the digestive system to work properly and with ease, soothing the gut wall, reducing any inflammation, easing griping pains, and helping the removal of gas from the digestive tract. (Return to Stomachic)

 

-   Carotene – A yellow to orange pigment that is converted into vitamin A in the body.  There are several different forms, including alpha-, beta-, and gamma—carotene. Fat-soluble plant pigments.

 

-   Carotenoids – A group of phytochemicals that act as antioxidants and includes the carotenes as well as some other substances.

 

-   Cartilage – A type of connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber at joint interfaces.

 

-   Carpal tunnel syndrome – Compression of the median nerve entering the palm of the hand that causes pain and numbing in the middle and index finger.

 

-   Carron oil – A liniment consisting of equal parts of linseed oil and limewater.

 

-   Castor oil – Unpleasant-tasting, irritant laxative or cathartic.

 

-   CAT scan – Computerized axial tomography scan.  A computerized x—ray scanning procedure used to create a three-dimensional picture of the body, or part of the body, for the purpose of detecting abnormalities.

 

-   Catalyst – A chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.

 

-   Cataplasm – Another name for poultice.

 

-   Cataract – Opacity of eye lens that causes blurred vision, especially in the elderly.

 

-   Catarrh – Pathology. Inflammation of a mucous membrane, esp. of the respiratory tract, accompanied by excessive secretions. Excessive secretion of thick phlegm or mucus by the mucous membrane of the nose.

 

-   Catatonia – A state in which an individual becomes unresponsive; a stupor.

 

-   Catecholamine – The chemically similar Neurotransmitter dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

 

-   Cathartic – Strong laxative which causes rapid evacuation. A substance that stimulates the movement of the bowels, more powerful than a laxative.

 

-   Cathartics – Purgatives. A substance producing watery evacuations. Technically, a cathartic is similar to, but more powerful than a laxative.

 

-   Catheter – A device that allows drugs to be given on an ongoing basis.

 

-   Caustics – Herbs used to destroy living tissues. Capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action.

 

-   Cauterization – A technique used to stop bleeding that involves applying electrical current, a laser beam, or a chemical such as silver nitrate directly to a broken blood vessel.

 

-   Ceiling – The maximum biological effect that can be induced in a tissue by a given drug, regardless of how large a dose is administered.

 

-   Cell – A very small but complex organic unit consisting of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane.  All living tissues are composed of cells.

 

-   Cell-mediated immunity – Specific immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

 

-   Cellulose – An indigestible carbohydrate found in the outer layers of fruits and vegetables.

 

-   Centaury (Flower Remedies) –Useful for those with a weakness of will and for those who let themselves be exploited or imposed upon by others.

 

-   CephalalgiaSee Headache. In medicine cephalalgia is called a headache; it is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck.  Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies.  It ranks among the most common pain complaints. 

 

-   Cephalic – Remedy for disorders for head; referring or directed toward the head.

 

-   Cerebral – Pertaining to the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.  

 

-    Cerebral hemorrhage – Bleeding from the cerebral artery into brain tissue.

 

-   Cerumen – Ear wax.

 

-   Cervicitis – (Return to Chlamydia). Inflammation of the tissues of the cervix is known as cervicitis.  Cervicitis in women has many features in common with urethritis in men and many of the causes are sexually transmitted.

 

-   Cessation – A temporary or complete stopping; discontinuance: a cessation of hostilities. (Return to Respiratory arrest)

 

-   Chancroid – A highly infectious sexually transmitted disease characterized by the presence of genical ulcers.

 

-   Chelating agent – An organic compound capable of binding metals.

 

-   Chelation – A Chemical process by which a larger molecule or group of molecules surrounds or encloses a mineral atom.

 

-   Chelation Therapy – The introduction of certain substances into the body so that they will chelate, and then remove, foreign substances such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and other heavy metals.  Chelation therapy can also be used to reduce or remove calcium—based plaque from the linings of the blood vessels, easing the flow of blood to vital organs and tissues.

 

-   Chemoreceptor – A molecular structure on the surface of a cell that is sensitive to chemical substances, such as epinephrine, released by nerve cells.

 

-   Chemotaxis – Movement or response of cells to chemicals.

 

-   Chemotherapy – Treatment of disease by the use of chemicals (such as drugs), especially the use of chemical treatments to combat cancer. Drug treatment of parasitic or neoplastic disease in which the drug has a selective effect on the invading cells or organisms.

 

-   Chemotype – The same botanical species occurring in other forms due to different conditions of growth, such as climate, soil, and altitude.

 

-   Cherry Plum (Flower Remedies) – For those with a fear of mental collapse and of doing something desperate.  Also for the uncontrolled temper.

 

-   Chestnut Bud (Flower Remedies) – For those who refuse to learn from experience, and constantly repeat the same mistakes.

 

-   Cheyne-Stokes respirations – Cyclical slowing of breathing to cessation, then speeding up to peak.

 

-   Chicory (Flower Remedies) – For those who are over – possessive and are constantly trying to put others right, usually demanding the attention of those close to them.  Full of self pity, martyrs.

 

-   Chilblain – Red, round, itchy swelling of skin on fingers or toes due to exposure to cold.

 

-   Chiropractic – A system of healing based on the belief that many disorders result from misalignments (called subluxations) of the spinal vertebrae and other joints. Chiropractors primarily treat illness by using physical manipulation techniques to bring the body into proper alignment and thus restore normal health and functioning. Treatment method using manipulation of the muscular and skeletal systems, especially the spine.

 

-   ChlamydiaSexual transmitted, viruslike microorganism causing conjunctivitis, urethritis, and cervicitis.

 

-   Chlorophyll – The pigment responsible for the green color of plant tissues.  It can be taken in supplement form as a source of magnesium and trace elements.  The “green” matter in plants; used in nutrition to absorb toxins and as a vulnerary.

 

-   Chloroplast – Membrane-bound organelle that is the site of photosynthesis.

 

-   Cholagogue – Promotes flow and discharge of bile into intestine. A compound that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder.

 

-   Cholagogues – Herbs which provoke a flow of bile.  A substance that stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder.

 

-   Cholecystitis – Inflammation of the gallbladder.

 

-   Cholecystokinetic – Agent that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder.

 

-   Cholecystokinin (CCK) – A peptide hormone secreted by the small intestine.

 

-   Cholelithiasis – Presence of gallstones.

 

-   Cholera Infantum – Diarrhea in infants and young children.

 

-   Choleretic – Aids excretion of bile by the liver, so there is a greater flow of bile.

 

-   Cholestasis – The stagnation of bile within the liver. 

 

-   Cholesterol – A Crystalline substance that is soluble in fats and that is produced by all vertebrates.  It is a necessary constituent of cell membranes and facilitates the transport and absorption of fatty acids.  Excess cholesterol, however, is a potential threat to health. Steroid molecule that is a precursor of steroid hormones and bile salts, a component of plasma membranes, and present in fat and blood.

 

-   Choline – A quaternary ammonium cation, one of the B-Complex vitamins, found in the lecithin of many plants and animals. (Return to Lecithin)

 

-   Cholinergic – Pertaining to the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system and the release of acetylcholine as a transmitter substance.

 

-   Chorea – Involuntary muscular twitching of the extremities and face.  Chorea may follow an infection, or it may be a disease in itself. Nervous disorder marked by muscular twitching or arms, legs and face.

 

-   Chorionic – Referring to the chorion or membrane enclosing the fetus.

 

-   Chromatography – Separation of chemical compounds.

 

-   Chromosome – Any of the threadlike strands of DNA in the nuclei of all living cells that carry genetic information.  There are normally forty—six chromosomes (twenty—three pairs) in all human cells, with the exception of egg and sperm cells.

 

-   Chronic – Long term or frequently recurring.

 

-   Chronic fatigue syndrome – Persistent, extreme exhaustion and weakness due to unknown causes.

 

-   Chronic illness – A disorder that persists or recurs over an extended period, often for life.  Chronic illnesses can be as relatively benign as hay fever or as serious as multiple sclerosis.

 

-   Chronic viral – (Return to Cardiomyopathy). In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent.  The term chronic describes the course of the disease, or its rate of onset and development.  A chronic course is distinguished from a recurrent course; recurrent diseases relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between.  As an adjective, chronic can refer to a persistent and lasting medical condition. Chronicity is usually applied to a condition that lasts more than three months.

 

-   Chronotropic effect – An effect that changes the heart rate (i.e., the time between P-waves).

 

-   Chyme – Solution of partially digested food in the lumen of the stomach and intestines.

 

-   Cicatrisant – An agent that promotes healing by the formation of scar tissue.

 

-   CicatrixSee scar. Are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin (or other tissue) after injury.  A scar results from the biologic process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process.  With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound results in some degree of scarring. (Return to Scab)

 

-   Cirrhosis – Progressive liver condition from various causes.

 

-   Citric acid – An organic acid found in citrus fruits.  Often used to lower the pH of cosmetic products to bring them closer to the natural pH of the skin.

 

-   Claudication –Cramping pain from inadequate blood supply to muscle.

 

-   Clematis (Flower Remedies) – For the dreamy sort of person who doesn’t pay much attention to what’s going on around them.

 

-   Climacteric – Physical and emotional changes as sexual maturity gives way to cessation of reproductive function in females and testosterone decrease in male.

 

-   Clinical therapeutic index – An index of relative safety or relative effectiveness that cannot be defined explicitly and uniquely, although it is presumed that the same quantifiable and precise criteria of efficacy and safety will be used in comparing drugs of similar kinds.

 

-   Clinical trial – The systematic investigation of the effects of materials or methods, according to a formal study plan and generally in a human population with a particular disease or class of diseases.

 

-   Clot – Soft, thickened lump formed in liquid, especially blood.

 

-   Clotting factor – One of several substances, especially vitamin K, that are present in the bloodstream and are important in the process of blood clotting.

 

-   Club moss – any of various small, non-seed-bearing vascular plants with conelike, spore-bearing structures on top of stems. (Return to Lycopod)

 

-   Clubbing – Thickening of tissue at the base of a fingernail or toenail, especially enlargement of a fingertip.

 

-   Clyster – Enema

 

-   CNS – Central nervous system.

 

-   Cocarcinogen – An agent that acts with another agent to cause cancer.

 

-   Coccus – Spherical bacterium.

 

-   Cod Liver Oil – Natural oils from cod fish which contain essential fatty acids and vitamins A and D.

 

-   Coenzyme – A molecule that works with an enzyme to enable to the enzyme to perform its function in the body.  Coenzymes are necessary in the utilization of vitamins and minerals. Nonprotein organic molecule that temporarily joins with an enzyme during reaction, is not consumed in reaction, and can be reused until degraded; cofactor.

 

-   Cold—pressed – A term used to describe food oils that are extracted without the use of heat in order to preserve nutrients and flavor.  

 

-   Cold sore – Small swelling or eruption of skin around lips that dries to leave a crusty patch; fever blister. (Return to Herpes).

 

-   Colic – Spasmodic abdominal pain due to any of the various causes. Sharp abdominal pains that result from spasm or obstruction of certain organs or structures, especially the intestines, uterus, or bile ducts. Pain due to contraction of the involuntary muscles of the abdominal organs.

 

-   Colitis – Any inflammation of the colon, causing diarrhea and lower abdominal pain.

 

-   Colitis, Mucous – Inflammation of the colon accompanied by excessive production of mucus.

 

-   Collagen – Extremely strong fibrous protein that functions as a structural element in connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments.

 

-   Collagen disease – A disease characterized by changes in the makeup of connective tissue: lupus, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma.

 

-   Colloid – An extremely fine particle suspended in a surrounding medium.

 

-   Collyrium – Medicated solution used to bathe eyes.

 

-   Colonscope – A procedure in which a long flexible tube (a colonscope) is threaded up through the rectum for the purpose of examining the entire colon and rectum and, if there is an abnormality, taking a biopsy or removing it.  The procedure requires a thorough bowel cleansing.

 

-   Coma – Prolonged state of deep unconsciousness from which patient cannot be roused.

 

-   Comedo – Blackhead.

 

-   Comparison trial – A trial in which experimental drugs are tested against each other or against an approved drug.

 

-   Complement – Set of enzymes in the bloodstream that work with antibodies to attack foreign cells and bacteria.

 

-   Complete blood count (CBC) – Series of tests including cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and cell volume measurement.

 

-   Complete protein – A source of dietary protein that contains a full complement of the eight essential amino acids.

 

-   Compliance – The extent to which a patient agrees to and follows a prescribed treatment regimen.

 

-   Complication – A secondary infection, reaction, or other negative event that makes recovery from illness more difficult and/or longer.

 

-   Compress – Moistened pad of folded cloth, often medicated, applied with heart, cold, or pressure to soothe a body part.

 

-   Concrete – A concentrated, waxy, solid or semisolid perfume material prepared from previously live plant matter, usually using a hydrocarbon type of solvent.

 

-   Cone – Reproductive structure of certain nonflowering plants with overlapping scales or bracts containing pollen, ovules, or spores.

 

-   Congenital – Present from birth, but not necessarily inherited. (Return to Cardiomyopathy).

 

-   Congestion – Accumulation of blood within an organ; clogging of the upper respiratory system with mucus.

 

-   Congestive heart failure – Inability of the heart to adequately supply blood to body tissue, often due to weakening of cardiac muscle, causing body swelling and shortness of breath.

 

-   Conifer – cone-bearing gymnosperm, usually with narrow, needlelike or small, scalelike leaves.

 

-   Conjunctivitis – Inflammation of mucous membrane covering front of eye, often with discharge of pus; pinkeye. (Return to Chlamydia).

 

-   Connective tissue – The type of tissue that performs the function of providing support, structure, and cellular cement to the body.

 

-   Constipation – Infrequent, difficult, often painful bowel movements with hard feces, irregularity.

 

-   Constringents – Astringents.

 

-   Contagious – A disease that can be transferred from one person to another by direct contact.

 

-   Continuous infusion – Uninterrupted introduction of fluid other than blood into a vein.

 

-   Contraceptive – Tending to prevent conception, or a device, substance, or method used to prevent pregnancy.  Medication or device to prevent conception.

 

-   Contractility – Refers to the strength of heart muscle contraction.  This is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.  The sympathetic nervous system increases and the parasympathetic nervous system decreases the strength of a contraction.

 

-   Contracture – Fibrosis of connective tissue in skin, fascia, muscle, or joint that prevents normal mobility.

 

-   Controlled trail – Trail in which one group gets the experimental drug and another group gets either a placebo or an approved drug therapy.

 

-   Contusion – A bruise; an injury in which the skin is not broken. Surface injury in which skin is not broken; bruise.

 

-   Convulsants – Astringents.

 

-   Convulsion – A seizure characterized by intense, uncontrolled—label contraction of the voluntary muscles that result from abnormal cerebral stimulation. Involuntary muscle contraction that causes contorted movements of body and limbs.

 

-   Corm – Underground stem base that acts as a reproductive structure.

 

-   Corn – Area of hard or thickened skin on or between the toes.

 

-   Corolla – The petals of a flower considered as a whole.

 

-   Coronary – Of or pertaining to arteries of the heart.

 

-   Coronary heart disease – Serious condition affecting the coronary arteries.

 

-   Coronary insufficiency – The right and left coronary arteries supply blood to the heart.  Flow is considered insufficient if it cannot meet the needs of the heart.

 

-   Corpus luteum – The remains of the egg follicle after ovulation.

 

-   Cortical – Involving external layers of brain.

 

-   Corticosteroid drugs – A group of drugs similar to natural corticosteroid hormones that are used predominantly in the treatment of inflammation and to suppress the immune system.

 

-   Corticosteroid hormones – A group of hormones produced by the adrenal glands that control the boy’s use of nutrients and the excretion of salts and water in the urine.

 

-   Cortisol – A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates organic metabolism by converting fats and proteins to glucose.

 

-   Corymb – Flat-topped or convex cluster of flowers in which the outer flowers open first.

 

-   Coryza –Catarrhal inflammation of the nose. The nasal symptoms of the common cold.

 

-   Correctives – Herbs used to correct or render more pleasant the action of other remedies, especially purgatives.

 

-   Corrigents – Correctives.

 

-   CortisolBiochemistry. One of several steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and resembling cortisone in its action.  Pharmacology. Hydrocortisone. (Return to Adrenal gland)

 

-   Cotyledon – First or second leaf of a seedling. (Return to Monocotyledon)

 

-   Cough – Violent exhalation of irritant particles or congestive mucus from the respiratory system; tussis.

 

-   Counterirritant – External application of an irritating substance to relieve pain in another more deep-seated part or to speed healing from increased circulation of the area. An application to the skin that relieves deep-seated pain, usually applied in the form of heat; see also Rubefacient)

 

-   Crab Apple (Flower Remedies) – For those who feel unclean or ashamed of their ailments.  A cleanser for those feelings of self disgust and condemnation.

 

-   Cradle cap – A type of seborrheic dermatitis found on infants, usually appearing on the scalp, face, and head, and consisting of thick, yellowish, crusted lesions.  Scaling or fissuring often appears behind the ears and on the face.

 

-   Cramp – Prolonged painful contraction or spasm of muscle.

 

-   Creatinine – A protein found in muscles and blood and excreted by the kidneys in the urine. The level of creatinine in the blood and urine provides a measure of kidney function.

 

-   Crepitation – Soft crackling sound heard in the lungs through a stethoscope; rale. (Return to Rale).

 

-   Crepitus – Crackling sound made by grating of bone on bone or on cartilage, especially in an arthritic joint.

 

-   Cretinism – A condition originating in the fetal state or in early infancy due to severe thyroid deficiency, resulting in severely retarded mental and physical development.

 

-   CRH – Corticotropin-releasing hormone.

 

-   Crick – Painful muscle spasm or cramp in neck or upper back.

 

-   Crossover experiment – Each subject receives the test preparation at least once, and every test preparation is administered to every subject.  At successive experimental sessions each preparation is “crossed over” from one subject to another.

 

-   Cruciferous – Literally, “cross—shaped.” A term used to refer to a group of vegetables – including broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, and rutabagas – that have characteristic cross—shaped blossoms and that contain substances that may help to prevent colon cancer.

 

-   Cushing’s disease – Syndrome due to excess corticosteroid hormone, causing weight gain, excess body hair, and high blood pressure.

 

-   Cutaneous – Pertaining to the skin.

 

-   Cuticle – Waxy layer on the outer surface of plants.

 

-   CWPSee Pneumoconiosis and Black lung.

 

-   Cyanosis – A bluish coloration of the skin due to oxygen starvation of the cells of the body.

 

-   Cyanosis, Cardiac – Cyanosis due to heart failure.

 

-   Cycad – Any of the order of gymnosperms intermediate between ferns and palms, often with a thick, columnar truck crowned by large, tough, pinnate leaves.

 

-   Cyme – Inflorescence in which the primary axis bears a single central or terminal flower that blooms first.

 

-   Cyst – An abnormal lump or swelling, filled with fluid or semisolid material, in any body organ or tissue.

 

-   Cystitis – Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

 

-   Cystoscope – Instrument used to examine the urinary bladder.  

 

-   Cytokine – Protein produced by white blood cells that acts as a chemical messenger between cells. CD8 (T-suppressor) cells release a cytokine that appears to block HIV replication in infected cells, at least until the advanced stage of HIV disease.

 

-   Cytokinin – Plant hormone that promotes cell division.

 

-   Cytomegalovirus – A virus in the herpes family that causes enlargement of epithelial cells and mononucleosis-like disease.

 

-   Cytoxic T cell See T-killer cell

 

-   Cytotoxic – Toxic to all cells.

 

-   Cytotoxic T lymphocytes – (Return to Cell-mediated immunity).  Also known as T-Killer cell, cytolytic T cell, belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes that are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses or other pathogens, or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. Most cytotoxix T cells express T-cell receptors that can recognize a specific antigenic peptide bound to Class I MHC molecules, present on all nucleated cells, and a glycoprotein called CD8, which is attracted to non-variable portions of the Class I MHC molecule.  The affinity between CD8 and the MHC molecule keeps the T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation.

 

-   Cytotoxin – Substance that has a toxic effect on certain cells, used against some tumors.

 

           

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  D

 

-   Debility – Weakness, lack of tone. (Return to Asthenia).

 

-   Deciduous – Any plant that sheds all its leaves once each year.

 

-   Decoction – An herbal preparation in which the plant material (usually hard or woody) is boiled in water and reduced to make a concentrated extract.

 

-   Decongestant – Substance used to reduce nasal mucus production and swelling.

 

-   Deficiency disease – Any disease, such as beriberi, caused by nutritional deficiency.

 

-   Dehiscence – Splitting open of a wound.

 

-   Deydration – Deficiency or loss of water in body tissues marked by thirst, nausea, and exhaustion.

 

-   Delirium – Acute mental disorder due to organic brain disease, causing hallucinations, disorientation, and extreme excitation.

 

-   Dementia – A permanent acquired impairment of intellectual function that results in a marked decline in memory, Language ability, personality, spatial skills, and/or cognition (orientation, perception, reasoning, abstract thinking, and calculation).  Dementia can be either static or permanent, and can result from many different causes. Senility, loss of mental function.

 

-   Demineralization – Loss of minerals from the bone.

 

-   Demulcent – Soothes, protects and nurtures internal membranes. An herb rich in mucilage that soothes and protests irritated or inflamed tissue.

 

-   Demulcent Febrifuge – Reduces heat while building bodily fluids.

 

-   Demulcents – Mucilaginous principles which are used in solution to soothe and protect irritated mucous membranes or other tissues. Soothing, especially to mucous membranes. A substance that soothes tissue.

 

-   Deodorant – Corrects, masks, or removes unpleasant odors.

 

-   Deobstruent – Removes body obstructions.

 

-   Deobstruents – (Term obsolete and not very definite.) Remedies which overcome obstruction; aperients.

 

-   Deodorants – Substances which destroy or hide foul odors.

 

-   Dependence – A somatic state that develops after chronic administration of certain drugs; this state is characterized by the necessity to continue administration of the drug in order to avoid the appearance of uncomfortable or dangerous (withdrawal) symptoms.

 

-   Depilatories – Substances used to remove hair.

 

-   Depressant – Drug that lowers nervous or functional activity; sedative.

 

-   Depressants – Sedatives.

 

-   Depresso-Motors – Herbs which lessen motor activity,

 

-   Depurants – Herbs which cleanse wounds, ulcers, etc.

 

-   Depurative – Cleans or purifies blood by promoting eliminative functions. Helps combat impurity in the blood and organs.

 

-   Dermal – Pertaining to the skin.

 

-   Dermatitis – Skin inflammation.

 

-   Dermatomycoses – Skin infection caused by fungi.

 

-   Dermis – The layer of skin that lies underneath the epidermis.  Blood and lymphatic vessels and the glands that secrete perspiration and sebum are all found in the dermis.

 

-   Detergent – Cleansing to wounds, ulcers or skin itself.

 

-   Detergents – Herbs which act upon the emunctories, so as to cause excretion, and thereby purify the system.

 

-   Detoxicant – Removes toxins.

 

-   Detoxification – The process of reducing the buildup of various poisonous substances in the body.

 

-   Detumescence – Reduction or subsidence of swelling.

 

-   Diabetes – Diabetes mellitus.

 

-   Diaphoretic – A substance that induces sweating.  Causes perspiration and increases elimination through the skin.

 

-   Dialysis – A technique using sophisticated machinery to remove waste products from the blood and excess fluid from the body in the treatment of kidney failure.

 

-   Diaphoretic – Promotes perspiration, enabling the skin to eliminate waste from the body, thus helping the body ensure a clean and harmonious inner environment.

 

-   Diarrhea – Frequent bowel evacuation, especially of soft or liquid feces.

 

-   Diastole – Period of the cardiac cycle in which ventricles are not contracting.

 

-   Diastole pressure – Minimum blood pressure during cardiac cycle.

 

-   DicotSee Dicotyledon

 

-   Dicotyledon – Angiosperm having two seed leaves or cotyledons; dicot.

 

-   Digestant – Contains substances (i.e. ferments, acids) which aid in digestion.

-   Digestion – Process of breaking down large particles and high-molecular-weight substances into small molecules.

-   Digestive – Substance that promotes or aids the digestion of food.

-   Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs when the ventricle (generally the left ventricle) becomes dilated, and the ventricular muscle weak and relatively flaccid. As a result, the pumping action of the ventricle becomes weak; the amount of blood pumped with each heart beat drops; and the body’s organs do not receive their full quotient of blood.  Probably the best measure of the severity of a person’s dilated cardiomyopathy is the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), a measure of the percentage of the left ventricle’s volume that is ejected with each heart beat. Normally, the LVEF is greater than 50%. Patients generally experience a reduction in exercise capacity as the LVEF approaches 40%, and often experience symptoms at rest (weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath) when the LVEF is in the 20 - 30% range.

As dilated cardiomyopathy progresses, symptoms of shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, and leg swelling worsen. The propensity to develop life-threatening arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) also increases as the LVEF drops. The mainstay of therapy is drug treatment: digitalis, diuretics, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers are commonly used. For many patients, a new breed of pacemakers that synchronize and optimize ventricular contraction can improve both symptoms and survival various types of cardiac assist devices (essentially, implantable pumps) are also progressing rapidly. (Return to Cardiomyopathy)

-   Diluents – Herbs which dilutes secretions and excretions.

 

-   Diphtheria – An acute, infectious, bacterial disease characterized by a membranous exudation that covers the mucous membranes, usually in the neck area.  Symptoms may include pain, swelling obstruction of breathing, and prostration.  The disease can result in heart damage and is often fatal.

 

-   Disinfectant – Cleansing agent that destroys bacteria and other microorganisms, used on surfaces and surgical tools.

 

-   Disinfectants – Substances which have the power of destroying the noxious properties of decaying organic matter.

 

-   Disintegration time – The time required for a tablet to break up into granules of specified size (or smaller), under carefully specified test conditions.

 

-   Dissolution time – The time required for a given amount (or fraction) of drugs to be released into solution from a solid dosage form.

 

-   Dithiolthiones –Phytochemicals found in broccoli that increase levels of enzymes that help protect against certain types of cancer.

 

-   Diuretic – Promotes activity of kidney and bladder and increases urination and elimination of urine.

 

-   Diuretics – Herbs which increase the secretion of urine. Tending to increase urine flow, or a substance that promotes the excretion of fluids.  A substance that increases the flow of urine.

 

-   Diverticulum – Saclike out-pouching of the wall of the colon.

 

-   Diverticulitis – Colonic diverticulosis with inflammation.

 

-   Diverticulosis – Condition characterized by the existence of diverticular sacs at weak points in the walls of the alimentary tract, especially the intestine.

 

-   Dizziness – Feeling off balance, unstable, confused, as though whirling in place.

 

-   DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid. Substance in the cell nucleus that genetically contains the cell’s genetic blueprint and determines the type of life form into which a cell will develop.

 

-   Dopamine – A catecholamine neurotransmitter, precursor of epinephrine and norepinephrine. (Return to Catecholamines).

 

-   Dosha – Any of the three types of vital energy in Ayurvedic Medicine.  It is the balance between the doshas that determines health.

 

-   Dorsal – Pertaining to the back.

 

-   Dormancy – Period of time in which growth ceases.

 

-   Dosage form – The physical state in which a drug is dispensed for use.

 

-   Dose – The quantity of drug, or dosage form, administered to a subject at a given time.

 

-   Double-blind study – A way of controlling against experimental bias by ensuring that neither the researcher not the subject knows when an active agent or a placebo is being used. (Return to Open trial)

 

-   Douche – Introduction of water and/or a cleansing agent into the vagina with the aid of a bag with tubing and a nozzle attached.

 

-   Drastic – A very active cathartic which produces violent peristalsis.  

 

-   Drastics – Purgatives which cause much irritation.

 

-   Dromo – Refers to speed.

 

-   Dromotropic effect – A change in the amount of time it takes the heart to complete one beat.

 

-   Dropsy – The excessive accumulation of fluid within the body.  It may be localized or general.  If general, it may indicate possible kidney trouble or heart disease. Generalized edema. Excess of fluid in the tissues.

 

-   Drug – Substance that affects the structure or functional processes of an organism, especially to prevent or treat disease or relieve symptoms.

 

-   Drupe – A fleshy fruit, with one or more seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer.

 

-   Dysentery – Indigestion.  Infection of the intestinal tract that causes severe diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus.

 

-   Dysfunction – Abnormal function.

 

-   Dyskinesia – Defect in voluntary movement.

 

-   Dysmenorrhea – Painful menstruation. Painful or difficult menstruation.

 

-   Dyspepsia – Indigestion. Digestive disorder with abdominal pain and gas after eating, sometimes with nausea and vomiting.

 

-   Dysplasia – Any abnormality of growth.

 

-   Dyspnea – Difficult or labored breathing. Sense of difficulty in breathing, often associated with lung or heart disease.

 

-   Dystrophy – Organ or muscle disorder caused by insufficient nourishment or a hereditary disorder.

 

 

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  E

 

-   Ecbolics – Herbs which produce abortion. That which induces labor or causes abortion.

 

-   Ecchymosis – Bluish black mark on skin from release of blood into tissues, usually due to injury; black and blue mark.

 

-   Eccoprotics or Ectoprotics – Laxatives.

 

-   Echocardiogram – A diagnostic test that uses ultrasound to detect structural and functional abnormalities of the heart.

 

-   Eclampsia – Convulsions, especially due to toxemia during pregnancy.

 

-   Ectopic pregnancy – State in which a fertilized egg implants at a site other than the uterus.

 

-   Eczema – Inflammation of the skin accompanied by itching and the presence of a watery discharge.  It may be acute or chronic, but is not contagious.

 

-   Edema – Retention of fluid in the tissues that results in swelling. Excessive accumulation of fluid in tissues; dropsy.

 

-   ED50 – Median effective dose.

 

-   EDTA – Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. An organic molecule used in Chelation therapy.

 

-   EEG – Electroencephalogram. A test used to measure brain wave activity.

 

-   EKG (or ECG) – Electrocardiogram. A test that monitors heart function by tracing the conduction of electrical impulses associated with heart activity. Electrocardiogram – Machine that measures and records the activity of the heart.

 

-   Electroencephalogram (EEG) – A machine that measures and records brain waves.

 

-   Electrolytes – Substance that ionizes in solution and conducts electric current.

 

-   Electuary – A soft medicated confection. A medicine made by mixing drugs with honey or syrup to form a paste. Medication mixed with honey.

 

-   Elastin – A protein that gives tissue its elasticity.

 

-   Electrolyte – Soluble salts dissolved in the body’s fluids.  Electrolytes are the form in which most minerals circulate in the body.  They are so named because they are capable of conducting electrical impulses.

 

-   Elimination diet – A diet that eliminates allergic foods.

 

-   Elimination half-life – The time it takes for the body to eliminate or break down half of a dose of a pharmacologic agent.

 

-   ELISA – Enzyme—linked immunoadsorbent assay.  A test that determines the presence of a particular protein, such as an antibody, by detecting the presence of an enzyme that is linked to that protein.

 

-   Elixir – Substance that contains alcohol or glycerin, used as solution for bitter or nauseating drugs.

 

-   Ellagic acid – A phytochemical found in strawberries and grapes that help rid the body of free radicals.

 

-   Elliptical – Shaped like an ellipse, or regular curve.

 

-   Elm (Flower Remedies) – Good for temporary feelings of inadequacy and those overwhelmed by responsibilities.

 

-   Embolisms– Obstruction of an artery by a lodged blood clot, fat, air, or foreign body carried by circulating blood. (Return to Cardiomyopathy).

 

-   Embolus – An abnormal piece of matter in the bloodstream.  It may consist of a clot, air bubble, clump of cells, or a foreign object. A loose particle of tissue, a blood clot, or a tiny air bubble that travels through the bloodstream and, if it lodges in a narrowed portion of a blood vessel, can block blood flow.

 

-   Embrocation –The application of a liquid to a part of the body by rubbing.

 

-   Emesis – Vomiting; vomited matter.

 

-   Emetic – A substances that causes vomiting. Induces vomiting.

 

-   Emietics – Remedies which cause vomiting.

 

-   Emmenagogue – Helps promote and regulate menstruation.

 

-   Emmenagogues – Remedies which stimulate menstruation.  A substance that facilitates and regularizes menstrual flow. 

 

-   Emollient – Soothes, softens and protects the skin.

 

-   Emollients – Substances used to mechanically soften and protect tissues.  A substance that reduces inflammations and irritations. 

 

-   Empyema – Accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.

 

-   Emulsification – Maintenance of lipid droplets in solution.

 

-   Emulsify – The dispersement of large globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles.

 

-   Emulsion – An oily or resinous substance suspended in water, the agency of mucilaginous or adhesive substances. A combination of two liquids that do not mix with each other, such as oil and water; one substance is broken into tiny droplets and is suspended within the other.  Emulsification is the first step in the digestion of fats.

 

-   Emunctories – A part or organ of the body, as the skin or a kidney, that functions in carrying off waste products.

 

-   Emunctory – An excretory organ or duct.

 

-   Endemic – Native to or prevalent in a particular geographic region. Often used to describe diseases. Disease that is constantly present in a particular region but generally under control.

 

-   Endocarditis – Inflammation and damage to the heart cavity lining due to bacterial infection or rheumatic fever.

 

-   Endocrine gland – Ductless organ that synthesizes hormones and releases them directly into the bloodstream.

 

-   Endocrine system – The system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.  Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries, and testes.

 

-   Endocrinology – Study of the endocrine glands and hormones.

 

-   Endodermal – The innermost body tissue that derives from this layer, as the gut lining.

 

-   Endometrium – The mucous membrane lining the uterus.

 

-   Endometriosis – A condition in which tissue similar to that normally lining the uterus is found outside of the uterus, usually the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures.

 

-   Endorphin – Neurotransmitter that exhibits painkilling activity.

 

-   Endoscope – Instrument for examining the interior of a hollow organ.

 

-   Enervation – Weakness, lack of energy.

 

-   Engorgement – Congestion of a part tissues, or fullness (as in the breasts).

 

-   Enteric – An extensive outbreak of a disease, or a disease occurring with an unusually high incidence at certain times and places.

 

-   Enteric-coated – A way of coating a tablet or capsule to ensure that it does not dissolve in the stomach and so can reach the intestinal tract.

 

-   Enteritis – Inflammation of the small intestine.

 

-   Enterorrhaia – Hemorrhage from the intestine

 

-   Enuresis – Urinary incontinence. Bedwetting. Involuntary urination.

 

-   Enzyme – One of many specific protein catalysts that initiate or speed chemical reactions in the body without being consumed.

 

-   Eosinophil – A type of white blood cell, called a granulocyte, that can digest microorganisms.

 

-   Epidemic – An extensive outbreak of a disease, or a disease occurring with an unusually high incidence at certain times and places.

 

-   Epidemiology – Study of causes and control of epidemics.

 

-   Epidermis – The outer layer of the skin.

 

-   Epigastric – Upper middle region of abdomen.

 

-   Ephidrosis – Abnormal amount of sweating.

 

-   Epilepsy – One of various brain disorders that cause recurrent, sudden convulsive attacks.

 

-   Epinephrine – Hormone released by the adrenal medulla that elevates blood sugar and initiates the fight-or-flight response; adrenaline. (Return to Adrenaline; Return to adrenergic; Return to Catecholamines; Return to Chemoreceptor.)

 

-   Epiphyte – Nonparasitic plant growing upon another plant for support.

 

-   Epispastics – Blisters.

 

-   Epistaxis – (1) A film floating on the urine; (2) stoppage of bleeding; (3) nosebleed.

 

-   Epithelial – Lining cells which comprise the skin and mucous surfaces.

 

-   Epstein—Barr virus (EBV) – A virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and that may cause other health problems as well, especially in people with compromised immune systems.

 

-   Errhines – Herbs which increase the nasal secretions.

 

-   Eructations – Belching.

 

-   Erysipelas – An acute, infectious condition due to Streptococcus pyrogenes characterized by a spreading skin inflammation.

 

-   Erysipelis – An acute disease of skin and subcutaneous tissue with spreading inflammation and swelling.

 

-   Erythema – Reddening, especially of the skin.

 

-   Erythrocytes – Red blood cells. A red blood cell whose primary function is to carry oxygen to cells.

 

-   Erythropoiesis – Formation of erythrocytes.

 

-   Erythropoietin – Hormone secreted mainly by the kidneys that stimulates erythrocyte production.

 

-   Eschar – A dry crust of dead tissue.  A hard crust or scab, as from a burn.

 

-   Escharotic – A substance producing an Eschar.

 

-   Escharotics – Caustics.

 

-   Essential – A term for nutrients needed for building and repair that cannot be manufactured by the body, and that therefore must be supplied in the diet. At present, there are some forty—two known essential nutrients.

 

-   Essential fatty acids (EFAs) – Three unsaturated fatty acids – arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid – that are essential for health and cannot be manufactured by the body.

 

-   Essential oil – A volatile oil obtained from the leaves, stem, flower, or other part of plants, usually carrying the odor characteristic of the plant.

 

-   Estradiol – Is a sex hormone.  (Return to phytoestrogens)

 

-   Estrogen – Any of several steroid hormones produces chiefly by the ovaries and responsible for promoting estrus and the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics. (Return to Oestrogen)

 

-   Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid – Chemistry, Pharmacology. (Return to EDTA)

 

-   Etiology – Science of causes and origins of diseases.

 

-   Eugenol – An extract of cloves.

 

-   Evacuants – Remedies which evacuate; chiefly applies to purgatives.

 

-   Evening Primrose – The seed oil of Evening Primrose, rich in gamma linolenic acid.

 

-   Evergreen – Plant that maintains functional green foliage throughout year.

 

-   Exacerbation – Aggravation of symptoms or an increase in the severity of a disease.

 

-   Exanthema – Any eruption of the skin accompanied by inflammation.

 

-   Exanthematous – Characterized by skin eruptions.

 

-   Excision – Surgical cutting away and/or removal of tissue.

 

-   Excitants – Stimulants.

 

-   Excito-Motors – Herbs which increase motor activity.

 

-   Exclusion criteriaSee Inclusion/exclusion criteria. Are the standards used to determine whether a person may or may not be allowed to participate in a clinical trial.  The most important criteria used to determine appropriateness for clinical trial participation include age, sex, the type and stage of a disease, treatment history, and other medical conditions.

 

-   Excretion – The elimination of waste products from a cell, tissue, or the entire body.

 

-   Excretions – The act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs.  The matter, such as urine or sweat, that is so excreted.

 

-   Excretory – Pertaining to or concerned in excretion; having the function of excreting: excretory organs.

 

-   Exfoliant – A product or ingredient whose purpose is to remove unwanted tissue or waste products from the skin and other body surfaces.

 

-   Exfoliate – To shed cells from the epithelium layer of the skin or mucosa.

 

-   Exocrine gland – A gland that secretes through a duct.

 

-   Exophthalmic – Protrusion of the eyeball.

 

-   Exophthalmic goiter – Enlargement of the thyroid

 

-   Expectorant – Promotes discharge of phlegm and mucus from lungs and throat. Soothes bronchial spasm and loosens mucous secretions, helping dry, irritating coughs.

 

-   Expectorants – Herbs which act upon the pulmonic mucous membrane and increase or alter its secretions.  A substance that stimulates the expulsion of mucous from the lungs and throat.

 

-   Extracellular – The space outside the cell, composed of fluid.

 

-   Exudates – A substance that has oozed forth. Escaping fluid or semifluid material that oozes from a space that may contain serum, pus, and cellular debris.

 

-   Exudation – A discharge of certain elements of the blood into the tissues.

 

-   Eyewash – Medicinal solution that soothes eyes.

 

 

Top , #End of Document, References, Top

#A, #B, #C, #D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

 

 

  F

 

-   Fat-soluble Capable of dissolving in the same organic solvents as fats and oils.

 

-   Fatty acid – Any one of many organic acids from which fats and oils are made. Organic compound whose carbon chain ends in a carboxyl group.

 

-   Fauces – The throat, from the mouth to the pharynx.

 

-   FBS – Fasting blood sugar.  The level of glucose present if a blood sample drawn at least eight hours after the last meal.

 

-   Febrifuge – Reduces fever. Substance that relieves or reduces fever.

 

-   Febrifuges – Herbs which dissipate fever. (See antipyretic)

 

-   Feces – Digestive waster products

 

-   Feedback inhibition – Mechanism that maintains constant secretion of a product by exerting inhibitory control.

 

-   Fern – Nonflowering, vascular plant having roots, stems, and fronds and reproducing by spores instead of seeds.

 

-   Fever – Rise in body temperature above normal 98.6 degrees. (Return to Pyrexia)

 

-   Fiber – The indigestible portion of plant matter.  Fiber is an important component of a healthy diet because it is capable of binding to toxins and escorting them out of the body.

 

-   Fibrillation – Rapid, uncontrolled irregular twitching of heart muscle.

 

-   Fibroblastic – Pertaining to fibroblasts, or connective tissue cells.

 

-   Fibrocystic changes – Formation of benign cysts of various sizes in the breast.

 

-   Fibrosis – Thickening and scarring of connective tissue due to injury or inflammation.

 

-   First-degree burn – Reddening of the outer layer of skin.

 

-   First pass effect – The biotransformation and/or excretion of a drug by hepatic, including biliary, mechanisms following absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract, before the drug gains access to the systemic circulation.

 

-   Fissure – Crack in membrane lining.

 

-   Fistula – Abnormal tube like passage from a normal cavity or tube to a free surface or to another cavity. Abnormal passage that leads from an abscess or cavity to the skin or to another abscess or cavity, caused by disease or injury.

 

-   Fixative – a material that slows down the rate of evaporation of the more volatile components in a perfume composition.

 

-   Fixed oil – A name given to vegetable oils obtained from plants that, in contradistinction to essential oils, are fatty, dense, and nonvolatile, such as olive and sweet almond oils.

 

-   Flatulence – Gas. Excessive amounts of gas in the stomach or other parts of the digestive tract. Expulsion of intestinal gas through mouth by belching or through anus by passing flatus.

 

-   Flatus – Intestinal gas produced by bacterial action on waste matter in the intestines and composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide and varying amounts of methane.  Also called gas. (Return to Flatulence).

 

-   Flavonoid – Any of a large group of crystalline compounds found in plants.  Also called bioflavonoid. Plant pigment that exerts a wide variety of physiological effects in the human body.

 

-   Floret – Small flower; one of a number of individual flowers comprising the head of a composite plant.

 

-   Flowering plant – Any angiosperm that produces flowers, fruit, and seeds in an enclosed ovary.

 

-   Flower Remedies – An average dose of the flower remedies is 4 drops under the tongue 4 times a day.  The liquid should be held in the mouth so that it can enter the bloodstream through the saliva glands.  The flower remedies are prepared from highly potent, vital seed bearing, non-poisonous, flowers.  The remedies are simple to prepare using pure water, sunlight, fresh blossoms, & a clean glass bowl.

 

-   Foliage – Leaves of plant or tree.

 

-   Follicle – Saclike structure that forms inside an ovary when an egg is produced.

 

-   Free radical – An Atom or group of atoms that is highly chemically reactive because it has at least one unpaired electron.  Because they join so readily with other compounds, free radicals can attack cells and can cause a lot of damage in the body.  Free radicals form in heated fats and oils, and as a result of exposure to atmospheric radiation and environmental pollutants, among other things.

 

-   Free radical scavenger – A substance that removes or destroys free radicals.

 

-   Frond – Fern or palm foliage.

 

-   Fructose – Yellowish to white, crystalline, water-soluble sugar found in many fruits.

 

-   Fruit – Mature ovary of a flowering plant, sometimes edible.

 

-   Functional cyst – A benign cyst that forms on an ovary and usually resolves on its own without treatment.

 

-   FungiThe fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota ("true fungi" or eumycetes), that is phylogenetically distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes).  (Return to Dermatomycoses)

 

-   Fungicidal – Prevents and combats fungal infection.

 

-   Fungus – One of a class of organisms that includes yeasts, mold, and mushrooms.  A number of fungal species, such as Candida albicans, are capable of causing severe disease in immunocompromised hosts. Unicellular or filamentous organism, formerly classified with plants.

 

-   Furuncle – Boil.

 

-   Furunculosis A systematic condition characterized by the repeated formation of boils.