#End of Document, References
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– Causes induced abortion. Induces abortion or miscarriage.
- Abscess –
A localized collection of pus and liquefied tissue in a cavity.
- Absolute –
A highly concentrated viscous, semisolid, or solid perfume material, usually obtained by alcohol extraction from the concrete.
- Absorbents – Herbs
used to produce absorption of exudates or diseased tissues.
- Absorption – 1.
The act of absorbing. 2. The state or process of being absorbed. 3. Assimilation; incorporation: the absorption of small farms
into one big one. 4. Uptake of substances by a tissue, as of nutrients through
the wall of the intestine. Nutritionally, the process by which nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal tract into the
bloodstream to be used by the body. If nutrients are not properly absorbed, nutritional
deficiencies can result.
- Abstergents – Detergents.
– A neurotransmitter. Its effects include cardiac inhibition and increase
in blood vessel diameter.
- Acetic acid –
A week inorganic acid that is the active ingredient in vinegar; a 4 to 5 percent solution of acetic acid in water makes vinegar.
- Achenes –
An achene (also sometimes referred to as “akene and occasionally “achenium” or “achenocarp”)
is a type of simple dry fruit produce by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are “monocarpellate” (formed
from on e carpel) and indeshiscent (they do not open at maturity). Achenes contain
a single seed that nearly fells the pericarp, but does not adhere to it. In many
species, what we think of as the “seed” is actually an achene, a fruit containing the seed.
– Absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
- Acid –
Any of a class of compounds that share certain basic chemical characteristics. Acids
have low pH, are usually sour to the taste, and, in their pure form, are often corrosive.
They can be either organic or inorganic compounds. Acids found n plant
tissues (especially fruits) tend to prevent the secretion of fluids and shrink tissues. A compound producing hydrogen ions
in aqueous solution. Acidic refers to a pH below 7.0.
- Acidophilus –
Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, also called “friendly colonic flora”.
- Acidosis –
A condition characterized by excessive acidity of bodily fluids. Abnormal state of reduced alkalinity of blood and tissues.
- Acrid –
Leaving a burning sensation in the mouth.
- ACTH – See Adrenocorticotropic hormone. Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often
produced in response to biological stress (along with corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production of androgens and, as its name suggests, cortisol from the
adrenal cortex. (Return to Saponin)
- Acupressure –
Manual application of pressure at points where acupuncture needles would be inserted.
- Acupuncture –
Chinese practice that involves insertion of needles into body at specific points along meridians to treat disease and reduce
- Acute –
Designating disease with rapid onset, severe symptoms, and brief duration; opposite of chronic.
- Acute abdomen
– Emergency condition caused by damaging to one or more abdominal organs that result in intense pain and shock.
- Acute illness –
An illness that comes on quickly and may cause relatively severe symptoms, but is of limited duration.
- Adaptogen –
A term for a substance, usually an herb that produces suitable adjustments in the body.
Adaptogens tend to normalize body functions, and when the job is completed, they are eliminated or incorporated into
the body without side effect. Some beneficial adaptogens include garlic, ginseng,
Echinacea, ginkgo, goldenseal, and pau d ‘arco. An herb that increase resistance
and resilience to stress, enabling the body to avoid reaching collapse because it can adapt around the problem.
- Addison’s disease
– Condition marked by weakness, low blood pressure, and dark pigmentation due to inadequate hormone secretion by adrenal
- Adenitis –
Regional inflammation of gland or lymph node.
– Malignant epithelial tumor in glandular pattern.
- Adenoma –
An ordinary benign (nonmalignant) tumor of skin tissue.
- ADH – See Antidiuretic Hormone.
- Adhesion –
Union by fibrous connective tissue of two normally separate parts.
- Adipose –
Fat in connective tissue.
- Adipose tissue –
Fatty tissue; fat deposits.
- Adjuvant –
Any substances that enhances the immune-stimulating properties of an antigen or the pharmacological effect of a drug.
- Adjuvant Chemotherapy
– One or more anticancer drugs used in combination with surgery or radiation therapy as part of the treatment of cancer.
Adjuvant usually means “in addition to” initial treatment.
– This term refers to how a drug is taken.
- Adrenal gland – One of a pair of glands situated a tip the kidneys.
The adrenal glands are the source of the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol, among others.
- Adrenaline – Hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, which produces the “fight-or-flight” response. Also called epinephrine.
- Adrenergic – Compound that acts like epinephrine or nor-epinephrine.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – Polypeptide secreted by
anterior pituitary that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol.
- Adsorption –
to gather (dissolved substance) on a surface in a condensed layer: Charcoal will absorb gases.
- Adverse drug reaction (ARD) – Defined by the WHO as “any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis,
diagnosis, or therapy.”
- Aerophagy –
Swallowing of air.
- Aflatoxin –
A toxic chemical produced y the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus molds.
- Agar –
Polysaccharide derived from seaweed, used as culture medium for microorganisms; gelatinous natural laxative.
- Agglutinin –
Substance, especially antibody that causes bacteria, blood cells, and antigens to clump.
- Agonist –
A drug that both blinds to receptors and has an intrinsic effect.
– Acute illness caused by chemicals or drug reaction in which certain white blood cells disappear, causing rapid, massive
- Agrimony (Flower Remedies) – This remedy is especially used for those who suffer considerable inner torture which they try to dissemble
behind a façade of cheerfulness.
- Ague (a gu) –
The chief protein of blood plasma. Malaria; general malaise marked by fever.
- AIDS –
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; severe weakening or destruction of body’s immune system by human immunodeficiency
- AIDS-related complex ARC – Chronic enlargement of lymph nodes and persistent fever caused by AIDS virus.
(Return to ARC)
- Ajoene –
is a chemical compound available from garlic (Allium Sativum). The name is derived
from “ajo” the Spanish word for garlic. It is found as a mixture
of two isomers, E- and Z-4, 5, 9-trthiadodeca-1, 6, 11-triene 9-oxide.
Ajoene, an unsaturated disulfide, is formed from the bonding of three allicin molecules. Allicin is
a sulfinyl compound that gives garlic its strong odor and flavor. The release of allicin occurs after a garlic clove is crushed
or finely chopped. Subsequent formation of ajoene occurs when allicin is dissolved in various solvents including edible oils.
Ajoene is also found in garlic extract. Ajoene is most stable and most abundant in macerate of garlic (chopped garlic in edible
- Albumin –
The chief protein of blood plasma. Most abundant protein found in blood plasma.
- Albuminuria –
The presence of protein albumin in the urine.
- Aldosterone –
A hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, which causes the retention of sodium and the secretion of
- Alga –
Unicellular organism distinguished from plants by having no true root stem.
- Alkaline phosphatase
– A blood enzyme measurement that indicates the health of the liver.
- Alkaline –
Solution having a pH above 7.0.
- Alkaloids –
A large, varied group of nitrogen-containing compounds found in plants. Often
alkaline, they react with acids to form soluble salts, many of which are physiologically active.
- Alkalosis –
Abnormal state of increased alkalinity of blood and tissues.
- Allantoin –
is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3.
It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide. It is a diureide of glyoxylic acid. Named after the allantois, an
amniote embryonic excretory organ in which it concentrates during development in most mammals except humans and higher apes,
it is a product of oxidation of uric acid by purine catabolism. After birth, it is the predominant means by which nitrogenous
waste is excreted in the urine of these animals. In humans and higher apes, the metabolic pathway for conversion of uric acid
to allantoin is not present, so the former is excreted. Recombinant rasburicase is sometimes used as a drug to catalyze this
metabolic conversion in patients. In fish, allantoin is broken down further (into ammonia) before excretion. Allantoin is
a major metabolic intermediate in many other organisms including plants and bacteria.
– Chemicals involved in interspecific communication.
- Allelopathy –
Chemicals interaction between species at all levels of complexity, from microorganisms to higher plants, inextricably interwoven
into ecological phenomena.
- Allergen –
Any substance that comes into contact with body tissue (by skin absorption, ingestion, or inhalation) and causes a specific
reaction within the bloodstream.
- Allergy –
Hypersensitivity to a particular substance or antigen, such as pollen, fur, feathers, mold, dust, drugs, dyes, cosmetics,
or food, causing characteristic symptoms when encountered, ingested, or inhaled.
- Alliaceous –
Garlic- or onion like.
- Allicin –
is an organic compound obtained from garlic.
This colorless liquid has a distinctively pungent smell. This compound exhibits antibacterial and anti-fungal properties.
Allicin is garlic's defense mechanism against attacks by pests.
- Alliin – is a sulfoxide
that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic. It is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine. When fresh garlic is chopped
or crushed, the enzyme alliinase converts alliin into allicin which is primarily responsible for the aroma of fresh garlic.
Garlic has been used since antiquity as a therapeutic remedy for oxygen toxicity, and when this was investigated, garlic did
indeed show strong antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging properties, possibly owing to the alliin contained within.
(Return to Alliinaes)
When the effect of alliin is observed on blood cells in vitro, a noted increase in the engulfing capacity of phagocyting
cells is seen.
- Alliinaes – are a class
of enzymes found in plants of the genus Allicin, such as garlic and onions. Alliinase is responsible for catalyzing chemical reactions that produce the volatile chemicals
that give these foods their flavors, odors, and tear-inducing properties. Alliinases are part of the plant's defense against
herbivores. Alliinase is normally sequestered within a plant cell, but when the plant is damaged by a feeding animal, the
alliinase is released to catalyze the production of the pungent chemicals. This tends to have a deterrent effect on the animal.
The same reaction occurs when onion or garlic is cut with a knife in the kitchen.
In garlic, an alliinase enzyme acts on the chemical alliin converting it into allicin.
- Allogenic transplant
– Transfer of bone marrow from one person to another.
- Allay – Herbs
that lessen or relieve; mitigate; alleviate: to allay pain.
- Allergen –
A substances that provokes an allergic response.
- Allergy –
An inappropriate response by the immune system to a normally harmless substance. Allergies
can affect any of the body’s tissues. Hay fever is a common type of allergy.
- Allyl sulfides –
Phytochemicals found in leeks, onions, garlic, and chives that act to detoxify the body.
- Alopecia –
Baldness. Absence of hair from an area where it normally grows, especially progressive hair loss in men.
- Alopecia Areata –
Baldness occurring in patches.
- Alterative –
Herbs that gradually restore proper functioning of the body, increasing health and vitality.
Some alternatives support natural waste elimination via the kidneys, liver, lungs, or skin. Others stimulate digestive function or are antimicrobial. Tending to restore normal health; cleanses and
purifies the blood; alters existing nutritive and excretory processes gradually restoring normal body function.
- Alternative therapy –
The treatment of disease by means other than conventional medical, pharmacological, and surgical techniques.
- Alteratives –
Herbs used to modify nutrition so as to overcome morbid processes.
- Alzheimer’s disease
– Progressive dementia and brain degeneration.
- Amebiasis –
Infection with or disease caused by an amoeba.
- Amebic dysentery
– Severe dysentery caused by protozoan amoeba.
- Amenorrhea –
Absence or cessation of menstruation due to a congenital defect, hormonal deficiency, hypothalamus disorder, or emotional
- Ameobacidal –
- Amenorrhea –
Scanty or absent menstruation. Absence or suppression of menstruation.
- Amino acid –
Any of twenty—two nitrogen—containing organic acids from which proteins are made. Any of 25 organic acids containing
an amino group that link into polypeptide chains to form proteins.
- Amoebicidal –
A substance with the power to destroy amoebas.
- Amphoteric –
Having the ability to act as either an acid or a base.
- Amylase –
Enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides.
- Amyrin –
Effects of beta-amyrin palmitate isolated from the leaves of Lobelia inflata were studied on the central nervous system of
mice and were compared with those of antidepressant drugs, mianserin and imipramine. In the forced swimming test, beta-amyrin
palmitate, like mianserin and imipramine, reduced the duration of immobility of mice significantly in a dose-dependent manner
(5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1). Beta-Amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) or mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) elicited a dose-related
reduction in locomotor activity of mice and antagonized locomotor stimulation induced by methamphetamine. In contrast, imipramine
(5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) increased locomotor activity and potentiated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Beta-Amyrin palmitate
showed no effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia, whilst mianserin (10 mg kg-1) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg kg-1) antagonized
the reserpine-induced effect. Unlike imipramine, beta-amyrin palmitate and mianserin did not affect haloperidol-induced catalepsy,
tetrabenazine-induced ptosis and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Beta-Amyrin palmitate and imipramine had no effects on the
head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, whereas mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) decreased it in a dose-dependent
manner. A potentiating effect of beta-amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) on narcosis induced by sodium pentobarbitone
was stronger than that of imipramine (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) but weaker than that of mianserin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). These
results suggest that beta-amyrin palmitate has similar properties in some respects to mianserin and might possess a sedative
- Anabolic compound –
A substance that allows the conversion of simple nutritive materials into complex materials that are part of living tissue
during the constructive phase of metabolism.
- Anabolism –
Constructive metabolism in which food is changed into living tissue.
- Analgesic –
Tending to relieve pain, or a substance that relieves pain. A substance that relieves pain. A substance that reduces the sensation
- Analog (analogue)
– A chemical compound with a structure similar to that of another but differing from it in respect to a certain component;
it may have a similar or opposite action metabolically.
- Analogous –
is both the cognitive process of transferring
information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic
expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular
to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion
is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is
often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy.
Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion,
explanation and communication. It lays behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people, for example,
in face and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition" (Hofstadter in Gentner
et al. 2001).
Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, comparisons, metaphors, similes, allegories,
and parables, but not metonymy. Phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word
like also rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including
them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary and common sense, where proverbs and idioms give many examples of its application,
but also in science, philosophy and the humanities. The concepts of association, comparison, correspondence, mathematical
and morphological, homomorphism, iconicity, isomorphism, metaphor, resemblance, and similarity are closely related to analogy.
In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy.
Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers.
The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notable in cognitive science.
- Anemia –
A deficiency in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen to the body tissues.
- Anesthetics – Herbs
to produce anesthesia or unconsciousness. Causing loss of sensation, or a substance that causes the loss of sensation, especially
the ability to feel pain.
- Analeptics – Restorative
herbs or food.
- Analgesic – Relieves
pain when taken orally.
- Analgesics – Herbs
used to allay pain.
- Anaphrodisiac – Reduces
- Anaphrodisiacs – Herbs
used to allay sexually feeling.
- Anaphylaxis –
Acute, allergic reaction to a substance to which a person has been previously sensitized, resulting in faintness, palpitations,
loss of color, difficulty in breathing, and shock.
- Androgen –
Any substance that produces masculinization, such as testosterone.
- Anemia –
Reduced hemoglobin in blood, causing fatigue, breathlessness, and pallor.
- Anerobic –
Not dependent on oxygen, and may die or become inactive in its presence. Clostridium group of bacteria (that causes the deadly food poisoning in improperly sterilized cans) is anaerobic. Bacteria in heavily polluted water (with no dissolved oxygen) which degrade sewage from septic systems, live and function only in the absence of oxygen, and so does the bacteria that ferment organic material into beer, rum, whisky, wines, and other alcoholic beverages. Anaerobic organisms are the oldest life-form on earth which
appeared about 4.5 billion years ago. Also spelled as anerobic.
- Anesthetic –
Agent that diminishes or abolishes sensation and can produce unconsciousness.
- Aneurysm –
Balloon like swelling of an arterial wall.
- Angina –
Feeling of suffocating pain; chest pain.
- Angina pectoris –
A syndrome of chest pain with sensations of suffocation, typically brought on by exertion and relieved by rest. A suffocating
pain (angina) of the chest (pectoris). Angina is a result of the oxygen demands
of the heart not being met.
- Angiosperm –
- Angiotensin – Causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up.
It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, which also drives blood pressure up. (Return
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) – ACE converts Angiotensin I to a biologically active form, Angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors are used to combat hypertension.
- Angiotensinogen – Is an a-2-globulin that is produced constitutively and released into the circulation
mainly by the liver. It is a member of the serpin family, although it is not
known to inhibit other enzymes, unlike most serpins. Plasma angiotensinogen levels
are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels. (Return to Renin).
- Anhydrotic –
- Annual –
Plant with life cycle of one year or season.
- Anodyne –
Relieves pain when applied externally. Substance that soothes or relieves pain.
- Anodynes – Herbs
used to allay pain.
- Anodynia –
Absence of pain.
- Anorexia –
Loss of appetite.
- Anorexia nervosa
– Extreme loss of appetite, especially in adolescent females, causing severe weight loss and starvation.
- Anorexiant –
A drug or substance that leads to anorexia or diminished appetite; appetite suppressant.
- Anoxia –
Condition in which body tissues receive inadequate oxygen.
- Antacid –
A substance that neutralizes acid.
- Antacids –
Herbs used to neutralize acid in the stomach and intestines. A substance that neutralizes acid in the stomach, esophagus,
or the first part of the duodenum. A substance that neutralizes stomach acid.
- Antagonism –
The joint effect of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is less than the sum of the effects produced by each agent
separately. The agonist is the agent
producing the effect that is diminished by the administration of the antagonist.
- Antagonist –
A drug or substance that leads to anorexia or diminished appétit; appetite suppressant.
– Helps destroy and dispel parasites (includes vermicides and Vermifuges). A vermifuge, destroying or expelling intestinal
- Anthelmintics – Herbs
used to destroy intestinal worms.
- Anther –
Part of the stamen that produces and release pollen.
– A particular class of flavonoids that gives plants, fruits, and flowers colors ringing from red to blue.
– Glycoside compound that produces dyes and purgatives.
- Antianemic –
An agent that combats anemia.
– An agent that combats arthritis.
- Antiarthritics –
Herbs used for the relief of gout.
– A substance that relieves the symptoms of asthma, (antispasmodic).
– Destroying or stopping the growth of bacteria. A substance that stops or checks the growth of bacteria.
- Antibilious – Reduces biliary or jaundice condition.
- Antibiotic –
A substance that inhibits the growth of or destroys microbes (i.e. bacteria, viruses, yeasts, amoebas). Inhibits growth of
or destroys microorganisms.
- Antibody –
A protein molecule made by the immune system that is designed to intercept and neutralize a specific invading organism or
other foreign substance. Protein manufactured by lymphocytes that reacts with a specific antigen to fight invasion as the
principal component of immunity.
– Efficacious against catarrh. Anticatarrhals
help the body remove excess mucus, whether in the sinus area or in other parts of the body.
– Agent that prevents blood from clotting.
– Helps arrest or prevent convulsions.
– Helps alleviate depression.
- Antidiarrheal – A substance that combats and arrests diarrhea (See tannins). Efficacious against diarrhea. (Return to Astringents)
- Antidiuretic hormone – ADH; peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary, causing retention of more water
- Antidote –
A substance that counteracts the effects of a poison.
- Antiemetic –
Lessens nausea and prevents or relieves vomiting.
- Antiestrogenic – A substance capable of preventing full expression of the biological effects
of an estrogen. An agent that reduces the incidence and severity of nausea or vomiting. (Return to phytoestrogens)
- Antifungal –
Destroying or preventing the growth of fungi. A substance that inhibits the growth or multiplication of fungi.
– Prevents or decreases secretion of milk.
- Antigen –
A substance that can elicit the formation of an antibody when introduced into the body. Any substance or microorganism that,
when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it.
– An agent that prevents or combats hemorrhage or bleeding.
– Protects liver cells from chemical damage.
- Antihistamine – A substance that interferes with the action of histamines by binding to histamine
receptors in various body tissues (see Histamine). A chemical that blocks action of histamine.
- Antihydropics –
Herbs used for the relief of dropsy.
– Blood pressure-lowering effect.
– Counteracting or diminishing inflammation or its effects.
- Antilithic –
Prevents the formation of a calculus or stone.
- Antilithics – Herbs
used for the relief of calculus affections.
– Antimicrobials help the body destroy or resist pathogenic microorganisms. They help the body strengthen its own resistance
to infective organisms and throw off the illness.
- Antioxidant –
A substance that blocks or inhibits destructive oxidation reactions. Examples include vitamins C and E, the minerals selenium
and germanium, the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q10, and some amino acids. Inhibits oxidation.
A compound that prevents free radical or oxidative damage.
- Antiparasitical –
Destructive to parasites.
– Relieves malarial-type fevers and chills; prevents regular recurrences.
- Antiperiodics – Herbs
used for the relief of malarial fevers.
- Antiphlogistic –
A substance used to reduce inflammation. Relieves inflammation. Checks or counteracts inflammation.
– Relieves sensation of itching or prevents its occurrence.
– An agent that prevents and combats decay or putrefaction.
- Antipyretic – A substance that counteracts fever. Dispels heat, fire and fever. Reduces fever; (See also febrifuge)
- Antipyretics – Herbs
used for the reduction of bodily temperature in fevers.
- Antiretroviral – A substance that stops or suppresses the activity of a retrovirus such as
– Helps prevent and relieve rheumatism.
– Helps prevent the hardening of tissue.
– Effective against or a remedy for scurvy.
– Helps control the production of sebum, the oily secretion from sweat glands.
- Antiseptic –
Destroys and prevents the development of microbes.
- Antiseptics – Substances
which have the power of preventing putrefactions.
– A substance that prevents or relaxes muscle spasms. Relieves spasms of voluntary and involuntary muscles. Substances
that relieves smooth muscle spasms.
- Antispasmodics’ –
Herbs used for the relief of nervous irritability and minor spasms.
(Return to Spasmolytic)
- Antisyphilitics – Herbs
used for the relief of syphilis.
- Antitoxic –
An antidote or treatment that counteracts the effects of poison.
- Antitumor –
A substance that prevents or is effective against tumors.
- Antitussive –
Prevents or relieves coughing. Substance that reduces coughing, especially one that affects activity in the brain’s
cough center and depresses respiration.
- Antivenin –
A serum that contains antitoxin specific for an animal or insect venom.
- Antiviral –
Inhibits a virus. Substances that inhibits the growth of a virus.
- Antizymotics – Substances
which have the power of destroying disease—producing organisms.
- Anxiety –
An unpleasant emotional state ranging from mild unease to intense fear.
- Aperient –
A mild laxative.
- Aperients – Mild
purgatives. Gently stimulating evacuation of the bowels; laxative.
- Aperitif –
Stimulant of the appetite.
- Aperitive –
A substance that stimulates the appetite; gently causing the bowels to move: Laxative.
- Aphasia –
Inability to express oneself properly through speech or loss of verbal comprehension; sensory and motor areas may be involved.
- Aphonia –
Loss of voice.
- Aphrodisiac –
Increases or stimulates sexual desire.
- Aphrodisiacs – Substances
used to increase sexual power or excitement; sexual appetite or activity.
- Aphtha (pl. Aphthae) –
Small, white lesions that form in the mouth and throat due to the presence of the herpes simplex virus. The virus, once contacted, tends to remain in the body of the host.
When resistance is lowered for any reason, the virus may become active, forming Aphthae. Also called cold sores.
- Aphthous sore mouth –
The presence of small, white lesions (cold sores) in the mouth.
- Apnea –
Temporary cessation of breathing
- Apoplexy – Sudden loss of consciousness, a stroke, or sudden severe hemorrhage.
– Acute inflammation of vermiform appendix.
- Application –
Medication, remedy, or antiseptic placed externally on body part, as in a compress.
- Aqua Regia –
An extremely powerful acid formed by mixing nitric and hydrochloric acids.
- Arbovirus –
RNA-containing virus that can cause disease when transmitted from animals to humans by insects.
- ARC – AIDS-related complex.
- Arf – Stands for ADP ribosylation factor. Are members of the Arf family of the GTP-binding protein of
the RAS super family. Aft family proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, and six
highly conserved members of the family have been identified in mammalian cells. Although
Afr’s are soluble, they generally associate with membranes because of N-terminus myristoylation. They function as regulators of vesicular traffic and actin remodeling.
- Aril –
The husk or membrane covering the seed of a plant.
– The therapeutic use of essential oils.
- Aromatic –
Herbs which contain volatile, essential oils which aid digestion and relieve gas. A substance with a strong aroma or smell.
- Aromatics – Herbs
characterized by a fragrant or spicy taste and odor, and stimulant to the gastrointestinal mucous membrane.
- Aromatics Bitters –
Herbs which unite the properties of the aromatics and the simple bitters.
- Arrhythmia – Irregularity or deviation from normal rhythm or force of heartbeat. See Cardiac arrhythmia.
- Arteriole –
Microscopic blood vessel that connects the smallest arteries with the capillary beds.
Arterioles together with the smaller arteries make up the resistance vessels.
- Arteriosclerosis –
A circulatory disorder characterized by a thickening and stiffening of the walls of large and medium—sized arteries,
which impedes circulation. Deposit of cholesterol on artery walls; hardening of the arteries.
- Artery –
A blood vessel through which blood is pumped from the heart to all the organs, glands, and other tissues of the body. A blood
vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.
- Arthralgia –
Severe joint pain.
- Arthritis –
Inflammation of joints.
- Asbestosis –
A lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, sometimes leading to lung cancer.
- Ascaris –
A genus of intestinal worms. Roundworm (also called maw-worm and eelworm) found in the small intestine causing colicky pains
and diarrhea, especially in children.
- Ascites –
Excessive accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
- Ascorbate –
A mineral salt of vitamin C. Taken as nutritional supplements, ascorbates are less acidic (and therefore less irritating)
than pure ascorbic acid and also provide for better absorption of both the vitamin C and the mineral.
- Ascorbic acid –
The organic acid more commonly known as vitamin C.
- Asepsis –
Complete absence of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, fungi, and microorganisms.
- Aspen (Flower Remedies) –
Useful for feelings of anxiety and apprehension.
- Aspergillosis – A disease caused by a fungus. It
can cause lesions of the skin, ear, orbit, nasal sinuses, lungs, and sometimes the bones, meninges, heart, kidneys, or spleen. Symptoms include fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and coughing up blood. If the infection reaches the brain, it may cause dementia. (Return to Meninges)
- Assay –
- Asthenia – Lack or loss of strength, usually involving muscular system. (See
- Asthma – Paroxysmal attacks of bronchial spasms that cause difficulty in breathing, often hereditary; bronchial
asthma. (See Bronchial Asthma)
- Astigmatism –
Distortion of visual images due to failure of the retina to focus light.
- Astringent –
Firms tissues and organs; reduces discharges and secretions.
- Astringents – Herbs having the power of influencing vital contractility, thereby condensing tissues.
Those remedies that control and tend to check or arrest discharges. A substance
that has a constricting or binding effect (See Tannins, Antidiarrheal).
– Showing no evidence of a disease.
- Asystole – Absence of contraction (Systole). Asystole is when the heart has stopped beating.
- Ataxia –
Shaky movements and unsteady gait when brain fails to regulate posture or direction of limb movements.
- Atherogenic –
Having the capacity to start or accelerate the process of atherogenesis or the formation of lipid deposits in the arteries.
- Atheroma –
Degeneration of artery walls due to fatty plaques and scar tissue; common form of arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis.
- Atherosclerosis –The
most common type of arteriosclerosis, caused by the accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner lining of the arteries. A
process in which fatty substances (cholesterol and triglycerides) are deposited in the walls of medium to large arteries,
eventually leading to blockage of the artery.
- Atonic –
Lacking in tone; debilitated.
- Atony –
Lessening or lack of muscular tone or tension.
- Atopy –
A predisposition to various allergic conditions including eczema and asthma.
- Atrial fibrillation
– Rapid irregular twitchings of the wall of an atrium (chamber) of the heart.
- Atrium –
One of the upper chambers of the heart. Blood returning to the heart is stored
in the atria before being ejected into the ventricles.
- Atrophy –
Wasting away of normally developed organ or tissue due to degeneration of cells.
- Attrition –
Normal wearing away of surface of teeth.
- Aura –
A subjective sensation that precedes an attack of migraine or epilepsy. With
epilepsy, it may precede the actual attack by hours or seconds, and may be of a psychic nature or sensory with olfactory,
visual, auditory, or taste hallucinations. In a migraine attack, the aura immediately
precedes the attack and primarily consists of visual sensory phenomena.
- Autoimmune –
Designating a disorder of the body’ defense mechanism in which antibodies are produced against the body’s own
tissue, treating it as a foreign substance.
- Autoimmune disorder –
Any condition in which the immune system reacts inappropriately to the body’s own tissues and attacks them, causing
damage and/or interfering with normal functioning. Examples include Bright’s
disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Autologous –
Derived from the same individual or organism.
- Autologous transfusion –
A transfusion of one’s own blood that has been collected and kept for later use.
- Automatism –
Automatic behavior or actions without conscious knowledge or control. Certain
types of epileptic seizure may include automatisms. These may be complicated
actions completed totally without the subject’s control, and afterwards there will be no memory of having done them.
- Axil –
Upper angel between a stem and leaf or bract.
- Axillary –
In the armpit area.
- Axon –
The long, filamentous part of a neuron (nerve cell) that carries nerve impulses away from the sell.
- Ayurveda –
A highly developed system of therapeutics developed in the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indian subcontinent.
- Ayurvedic medicine – A holistic approach to health care that is based on principles of Ayurveda and designed
to maintain or improve health through the use of dietary modification, massage, yoga, herbal preparations, and other measures.
(Return to Dosha)